топики по англ яз. 7 класс


1. Great Britain

The full name of the country the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The United Kingdom is situated on the British Isles. The British Isles consist of two large islands, Great Britain and Ireland, and a great number of small islands. Their total area is over 314 000 sq. km. The British Isles are separated from the European continent by the North Sea and the English Channel. The western coast of Great Britain is washed by the Atlantic Ocean and the Irish Sea. Northern Ireland occupies one third of the island of Ireland. It borders on the Irish Republic in the south. The island of Great Britain consists of three main parts: England (the southern and middle part of the island), Wales (a mountainous peninsula in the West) and Scotland (the northern part of the island).There are no high mountains in Great Britain. In the north the Cheviots separate England from Scotland, the Pennines stretch down North England along its middle, the Cambrian mountains occupy the greater part of Wales and the Highlands of Scotland are the tallest of the British mountains. There is very little flat country except in the region known as East Anglia. Most of the rivers flow into the North Sea. The Thames is. the deepest and the longest of the British rivers. Some of the British greatest ports are situated in the estuaries of the Thames, Mersey, Trent, T Clyde and Bristol Avon. Great Britain is not very rich in mineral resources, it has some deposits of coal and iron ore and vast deposits of oil and gas that were discovered in the North Sea.The warm currents of the Atlantic Ocean influence the climate of Great Britain. Winters are not severely cold and. summers are rarely hot. The population of the United Kingdom is over 58 million people. The main nationalities are: English, Welsh, Scottish and Irish. In Great Britain there are a lot of immigrants from former British Asian and African colonies. Great Britain is a highly industrialized country. New industries have been developed in the last three decades. The main industrial centres are London, Birmingham, Manchester, Leeds, Liverpool, Glasgow and Bristol. The capital of the country is London. The United Kingdom is a parliamentary monarchy.

Vocabulary:isle — островisland — островto separate — разделятьeuropean — европейскийthe English Channel — Ла-Маншto be washed by — омыватьсяto border on — граничить с…to consist of — состоять из…mountainous peninsula — гористый полуостровto stretch — простиратьсяestuary — устье рекиdeposits — залежиiron ore — железная рудаto discover — обнаруживатьcurrent — течениеseverely- чрезвычайноdecade — десятилетиеmonarchy — монархия

Questions:1. Where is the United Kingdom situated2. What islands do the British Isles consist of?3. What ocean and seas are the British Isles washed by?4. How many parts does the Island of Great Britain consist of and what are they called?5. What country does Northern Ireland border on?6. Are there any high mountains in Great Britain?7. What sea do most of the rivers flow into?8. What mineral resources is Great Britain rich in?9. What is the climate like in Great Britain?10.What is the population of Great Britain?11.What city is the capital of the U. K.?12. What kind of state is Great Britain?

2. London — the capital of Great

   London is the capital of Great Britain. It stands on the river Thames and stretches (1) for over thirty miles from east to west. London is an ancient (2) city. It was founded more than two thousand years ago.   Its population is over 8 million people. London is the biggest industrial and cultural centre of Great Britain.   London is a great port. Today over 50,000 ships come to London daily (3).   Traditionally London is divided into several parts: the City, the West End, the East End and the Westminster Abbey.   In London one meets the past and the present, the old and the modem. It is a city of contrasts. It has many wonderful places of interests.   Trafalgar square (4) is the centre of London. The Nelson Column in the middle of the square particularly (5) impresses (6) tourists. It is 185 feet high. From Trafalgar Square you can go down the Whitehall and see the Houses of Parliament which stand in Parliament Square. The Houses of Parliament (7) is a long building that stretches for about 1000 feet. At one end is the famous Big Ben.   Behind it there is the Thames and the Westminster Bridge. Opposite the Houses of Parliament stands the Westminster Abbey (8), famous for its architecture and history. Nearly all kings and queens have been crowned in the Abbey. G. Chaucer, Ed. Spencer, Lord Tennyson, Ch. Dickens and many other famous men and writers were buried there. In the Poet’s corner there are memorials to W. Shakespeare, J. Milton, R. Burns, G. G. Byron and many other poets and writers. The Westminster Abbey is a beautiful chapel (9). Another place, which can impress you most, is Buckingham Palace. It is the residence of the Queen.   The other parts of London are the rich West End, the poor East End and the City (10)— its financial centre. The City of London is in size very small, it is only one square mile in area but is the most important banking and commercial centre of the country. The Tower of London is situated in the City, and it comes first among the historic buildings of London. St Paul’s Cathedral (11), the greatest of English churches, is situated not far from the Tower. Sir Christopher Wren (12) rebuilt it after the Great Fire (13) of London.   One of London’s attractions (14) is its parks. The most famous among them is the Hyde Park.   We can’t describe all the places of interest. The best way to know London is to visit it.

Vocabulary1. stretch — продлеваться2. ancient — древний3. daily — ежедневно4. Trafalgar square — Трафальгарская площадь5. particularly [pə’tɪkjələlɪ] — особенно6. to be impressed by smth. — быть пораженным нечто7. the Houses of Parliament — дом Парламента8. the Westminster Abbey — Вестминстерское аббатство9. chapel — часовня10. the City — Сити (исторический центр Лондона)11. St. Paul’s Cathedral — Собор Святого Павла12. Christopher Wren — Кристофор Рен (архитектор)13. the Great Fire — крупный пожар14. attraction — достопримечательностьQuestions1. Where is London situated?2. What is the City famous for?3. What is the Westminster Abbey famous for?4. What is the population of London?5. What places of interest are there in London?6. What parts does London consist of?

3. The house of my dream

   Dreams are very useful because they help to define (1) your aims and wishes. I like to dream and I often imagine (2) my future home. I’d like to live in a detached house in one of the suburbs of our city. I hope that there will be a forest and a lake near my house. A beautiful orchard with apple and cherry trees will surround my place. Let’s imagine that we open the gate and come close to a neat two-storey building. Welcome inside!   The ground floor consists of the kitchen, the living room and the study. The kitchen is cosy with all modern conveniences. We have running cold and hot water, a fridge, gas and microwave cookers, a dishwasher. These appliances (3) help to save our time. The kitchen is done in folk style and there are many traditional Russian pots and souvenirs. It’s nice when our family gets together in the evenings and shares the news.   The living room is spacious (4) with big windows. I don’t want to have much furniture in it, just a sofa, a low table and .chairs. I like when my friends visit us and we have a big dining table with chairs and a cupboard with porcelain, necessary utensils (5), table clothes, napkins (6), etc.   The study is the place where I work. To my mind there should be a desk, a chair, many bookcases with books, a computer with all other necessary appliances like printer, etc.   On the first floor there are two bedrooms. One bedroom is for adults. There we have a wardrobe, a bed and two night-tables. The colours of the walls are not bright. Everything promises you a restful sleep.   The bedroom of my children will be light with many toys and sports equipment. Children are very active and they must have much of exercise.   This is my dream and I haven’t imagined all the details rather clearly. By the time this dream comes true everything will be planned. I invite you to visit the house of my dream.

Vocabulary1. define — отмечать, определять2. imagine — представлять3. appliance — прибор, устройство4. spacious [‘speɪʃəs] — просторный 5. utensils — посуда 6. napkin — салфеткаQuestions1. What flat do you live in?2. What house would you like to have?3. What modern conveniences and appliances would you like to have in your future house?4. What is the decor of the rooms in your future flat or house?5. Would you like to live in the city or in the suburb?

4. My school

   I would like to tell you a few words about my school. I started schooling (1) at the age of seven and now I’m thirteen.   My school is a modern one. It is a very well-equipped (2) three-storied building. On the ground floor there is a gym, a canteen (3), a library with a reading room. The first blocks of the first and second floors are for junior (4) pupils. Their classrooms are light and spacious (5). There are three large windows in each classroom. Some windows face the school yard. There is a large sports ground behind the school building and a green lawn with flower beds in front of it (7).   On the first and second floors there are many classrooms, laboratories and specialized rooms, which are equipped with modern teaching materials, necessary devices and facilities (8). The senior (9) pupils study various subjects there: Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Geography, Information Technology, English and other educational subjects.   In our school there is an assembly hall (10), where meetings and parties are held.   I go to school six days a week. Our classes begin at eight-twenty in the morning but I usually come to school fifteen minutes earlier. Each lesson lasts forty-five minutes. After three and four lessons we have twenty-minute breaks to have lunch.   Every day we have five or six lessons. They are over at 3 o’clock in the afternoon. After classes I usually don’t go home right away (11). We have some out-of-class activities (12). Our school has a well-organized social and cultural life.   My favorite subject at school is certainly English. I do well in it without any effort. I like to learn new words, to dramatise texts and dialogues and to discuss something interesting to us.   But I am not good at mathematics. It is the most difficult subject for me. I fail (14) to learn formulas and terms properly, but I always try to do my best to cope (15) with doing all my home tasks in this and other subjects.   I’d like to mention about my classmates (16). The pupils in our class aren’t just boys and girls. Everyone is a unique (17) individual. I’m on good terms (18) with the majority (19) of my classmates and we often spend our free time together.   I’ll remember my school and my school years as long as I live.

Vocabulary1. schooling — школьное обучение

2. well-equipped — хорошо укомплектованный3. a gym, a canteen — спортзал, столовая4. junior [‘ʤuːnɪə] — младший5. spacious [‘speɪʃəs] — просторный 7. lawn with flower beds in front of it — газон с цветочными клумбами впереди8. devices and facilities — приборы и средства9. senior [‘siːnɪə] — старший10. assembly hall [ə’semblɪ] — актовый зал11. right away — сразу12. some out-of-class activities — некоторые внеклассные мероприятия 14. fail [feɪl] — терпеть неудачу15. cope [kəup] — справляться 16. classmates — одноклассники 17. unique [juː’niːk] — уникальный18. to be on good terms — дружить19. majority [mə’ʤɔrətɪ] — большинство Questions1. Where is your school situated?2. Are you satisfied with your gym?3. Is there a swimming pool in your school?4. Is there a garden in the yard of the school behind it?5. Is there a stadium at your school?

5. Holidays in Great Britain

   There are only six public holidays (1) a year in Great Britain, that is, the days on which people need not go to work. They are: Christmas Day, Boxing Day, Good Friday, Easter Monday, Spring Bank Holiday and Late Summer Bank Holiday. Most of these holidays are of religious origin. All the public holidays, except Christmas Day and Boxing Day, are movable, they do not fall on the same day each year.   In England the New Year is not so widely celebrated as Christmas. Some people ignore it completely (2) and go to bed at the same time as usual on New Year’s Eve. Others celebrate it arranging either a family party or visiting the one’s arranged (3) by a group of young people. The type of celebration is varied very much according to local customs, family traditions and personal tastes. Another popular way of celebrating New Year is to go to New Year dance. Most hotels and dance halls hold a special dance on New Year’s Eve.   On February the 14th is St. Valentine’s Day, when boys and girls, sweethearts and lovers, husbands and wives, friends and neighbours exchange (4)greetings of affection (5) and undying love. But the tradition is to do it anonymously.   Mother’s day is traditionally celebrated on the first Sunday in Lent (6). On this holiday mother is rewarded for all her work about the house during the year. Her husband and children give her presents and traditionally bring her breakfast in bed.   Easter is also a time when certain old traditions are observed. It is the time of giving presents, and the Easter egg is the most popular emblem of this holiday. Nowadays Easter eggs are usually made of chocolate in Great Britain.   Tradition says that the Easter Bunny (rabbit) delivers these eggs. Easter cake is an iced fruitcake with a marzipan ring on the top.   On Late Summer Bank Holiday the townsfolk (7) usually flock (8) into the country arid to the coast. If the weather is fine, many families take a picnic-lunch or tea with them and enjoy their meal in the open air. It is also an occasion for big sports meetings.   Remembrance Day (Poppy Day) is celebrated throughout Britain in commemoration of the million or more British soldiers, sailors and airmen who lost their lives during the two World Wars.   Christmas Day (9) is observed on the 25th of December. On Christmas Eve in the homes there is a great air of expectation. Children decorate the fir-tree with tinsel (10), coloured lights and toys. The houses are decorated with holly and a bunch of mistletoe (11). The Christmas bird, nowadays usually a turkey, is cooked and stuffed (12) by housewives. It is followed by Christmas pudding, which is made with dried fruit and brandy. Sometimes a coin is put in the pudding as a surprise.

Vocabulary1. public holidays — государственные праздники2. ignore completely [ɪg’nɔː] — полностью игнорировать3. arranged — устроенный4. exchange — обмениваться5. любовь — привязанность, симпатия6. Lent — Великий пост7. townsfolk — городские жители, горожане8. flock — собираться толпой, идти толпой9. Christmas Day — Рождество10. tinsel [‘tɪn(t)s(ə)l] — блестки, блестки11. bunch of mistletoe [‘mɪsltəu] — ветка омелы12. stuff — начинять Questions1. What public holidays are there in Great Britain?2. How is New Year Holiday celebrated in Great Britain?3. When do English people celebrate St. Valentine’s Day? What kind of holiday is it?4. When and how is Mother’s Day traditionally celebrated in Great Britain?5. What is the most popular emblem of Easter?6. When is Christmas Day observed in Great Britain? How do English people celebrate it

6. Christmas Day

   Christmas Day, 25 December, is celebrated by Christians as the day on which Jesus Christ was born. In the USA carol (1) services take place in churches throughout December and children perform nativity plays (2), acting out the stories of Christ’s birth. Many people go to Christmas midnight mass (3) in church.Before Christmas, people send Christmas cards to their friends. These often show Santa Claus, angels, holly or snowmen, all traditional symbols of Christmas. People buy Christmas presents for their family and friends. Most shops are decorated for Christmas from September, but most people do their Christmas shopping until December. Most towns put up a Christmas tree, a fir tree decorated with coloured lights, shiny balls, tinsel (4) and bows, and put strings of lights (5) across the streets.   A few days before Christmas people decorate a Christmas tree in their home. Some even hang a holly wreath (6) on their-front door.   Presents are wrapped in coloured paper and put under the Christmas tree.   Small presents are put into a stocking, a long sock that each person hangs near the chimney (7) or at the end of their bed. On Christmas Eve children go to bed full of excitement. On Christmas morning all the members of the family gather round the Christmas tree and open their presents.   In preparation for Christmas most people buy a lot of food and prepare special dishes. In Britain they make or buy mince pies (8) and a Christmas cake. In the US they make Christmas cookies.

Vocabulary1. carol — колядка2. nativity play — рождественский спектакль3. midnight mass — ночная служба, богослужения 4. tinsel — блестки, дождик 5. strings of lights — гирлянды лампочек 6. (a) holly wreath — рождественский венок 7. chimney — дымоход 8. mince pie — сладкий пирог Questions1. Why Christmas is one of the most popular holidays in the Christian world? 2. What do the Americans do before Christmas? 3. Why do children like this holiday very much? 4. Where do parents put Christmas presents for their children? 5. What food do the American people prepare for Christmas?

7. The seasons of the year

   There are four seasons in the year: winter, spring, summer and autumn. Each of them lasts three months. Every season is beautiful in its own way (1). When spring comes nature awakens from its long winter sleep. The days become longer and the nights become shorter. The air is fresh, the sky is blue and cloudless, and the sun shines brightly. The trees are in full blossom. The days are warm and everything is full of life and joy. All kinds of plants and flowers come out. The birds return from the South and build their nests.   Spring is followed by summer. The weather gets still warmer and sometimes very hot, especially in July. Sometimes there are storms with thunder (2) and lightning (3). The gardens are gay with flowers all summer months.   In summer many people have holidays and vacations. They spend much time on the seashores, river beaches, in the forests and in the mountains. It’s a good time to swim, to pick mushrooms, berries, flowers, go fishing and boating and become sunburnt (4).   Autumn begins in September. The days become shorter and nights longer. The sky is often cloudy. This is mostly a rainy season. The leaves turn yellow, red and brown and fall to the ground. Most birds fly away to warm countries. The farmers begin to harvest (5) what they sowed in spring. But there are some sunny days in late September that is called Indian summer (6).   But gradually it gets colder and colder. The landscape becomes very dull. Nature slowly falls asleep. In winter the sun sets early and rises late. The days are the shortest and the nights are the longest. The rivers and lakes are frozen over. The sky is grey, the sun shines but doesn’t give warmth. Everything is covered with snow. The weather gets frosty. Sometimes it is very cold, about 20-25 degrees below zero. Winter is a good time for sport.   As for me, I like all seasons, but best of all I like spring.

Vocabulary1. its own way — по-своему2. thunder — гром3. lightning — молния4. to become загорелый — загореть5. harvest — собирать урожай6. Indian summer — «бабье лето» Questions1. How many seasons are there in a year?2. Why do we like spring very much?3. Summer Is the best season for tourism?4. Do you like late autumn? Why?5. What is the weather like in winter?

8. Food and health

   Whether you eat to live or live to eat, food should help keep you well. In the modern world of processed and preserved foods, many nutritionists (1)are suggesting that you can stay healthy with a well-balanced diet of plenty of fresh fruits and vegetables and not too much lean meat, salt or sugar. In fact, eating natural, unprocessed foods that are made from scratch (2), instead of artificial and junk foods (3), may not only keep you healthy, but save your money too.   To stay healthy, you must also be careful to avoid food poisoning, a common, unpleasant, and often dangerous illness that affects one out of every six Americans each year. Food poisoning is often caused by salmonella bacteria (4) in food, especially raw meats and dairy products. Heat usually kills the bacteria, and refrigeration keeps them from growing. Also, be sure to keep your hands and cooking utensils clean so you don’t transfer germs to the food while you are preparing it.   If you use canned food (5), always check the cans for leaks or puffiness. A puffed can could mean botulism, a fatal type of food poisoning that you cannot see or smell. Never taste any food that you suspect has spoiled. Instead, return any damaged cans or spoiled food to the grocery store, and the sales manager will refund your money. When using processed foods, be sure to read all the labels (6) and check the ingredients and the freshness date (7) before you buy or eat the food.   Eating is one of the joys of life. Being careful about what you put in your mouth can keep it that way.Vocabulary1. nutritionists [njuː’trɪʃ(ə)nɪst] — диетолог2. to be made from scratch — быть только что приготовленным3. artificial and junk foods- искусственные заменители пищи и еда быстрого приготовления4. salmonella bacteria — бактерии сальмонеллы5. canned food — консервы6. label — метка7. freshness date — дата изготовления Questions1. What do many nutritionists suggest nowadays?2. What is called an artificial and junk food?3. What should be done to stay healthy?4. What should be done with canned food?5. Why is it necessary to read all the labels?



9. British meal

   The usual meals in Great Britain are break¬fast, lunch and supper. Breakfast is generally a bigger meal than you have on the Continent, though some English people like a ‘continental’ breakfast of rolls and butter and coffee. But the usual English breakfast is porridge or ‘Corn Flakes’ with milk or cream and sugar, bacon and eggs; marmalade (made from oranges) with buttered toast, and tea or coffee. For a change (1) you can have a boiled egg, cold ham, or perhaps fish.   All Englishmen generally have lunch about one o’clock. The businessman in London usually finds it impossible to come home for lunch; but if the Englishman is making lunch at home he has cold meat (left over probably from yesterday’s dinner), potatoes, salad and pickles (2), with a pudding or fruit to follow. Sometimes he has a mutton chop, or steak and chips, followed by biscuits and cheese, and some people like a glass of light beer with lunch.   Afternoon tea you can hardly call a meal, but it is a sociable sort of thing, as friends often come in then for a chat (3) while they have their cup of tea, cake or biscuit.   In some houses dinner is the biggest meal of the day. They begin with soup, followed by fish, roast chicken, potatoes and vegetables, a sweet, fruit and nuts. Then they go into the sitting-room for coffee and the cigarettes. In a great many English homes, they make the mid¬day meal the chief (4)one of the day, and in the evening they have the much simpler supper — an omelettes, or sausages, sometimes bacon and eggs and sometimes just bread and cheese, a cup of coffee or cocoa and fruit.   Tea making in England is an art. The hostess first of all rinses the teapot with boiling water (this is called ‘warming the pot’) before adding four or five teaspoonfuls of tea. The amount of tea varies, of course, according to the number of people present. The pot is then filled with boiling water and covered by a tea-cosy (5) to allow the tea to infuse (6) for five minutes. English people seldom put lemon juice or rum (7) in their tea, usually they have it with milk.   The English have a special taste for fish and chips. Everybody seems to have fish and chips at home at least once a week and every English town has in its side streets the shop. The pieces of fish are dipped in batter (8) and then dropped into deep boiling oil for a few minutes. They come out crisp (9)and hot and are then wrapped in grease-proof paper (10) and handed to the customer to take away. Attached to some shops is a small cafe where you can eat your fish and chips without taking them home.

Vocabulary1. for a change — для разнообразия2. pickle — маринованный огурец3. chat — беседа4. chief — главный5. tea-cosy — чехол для чайника6. to infuse — заваривать чай7. rum — ром8. тест — кляр, жидкое тесто9. crisp — хрустящий10. grease-proof paper — жиро-непроницаемый бумага 

Questions1. What is the difference between meals and meal-times in England and Russia?2. Do Russian national dishes differ from those of English?3. Why is tea making called an art in England? 4. What does the usual English breakfast consist of? 5. What is the main problem about fish and chips?

10. Places of interest in Great Britain

   Great Britain is rich (1) in world-famous places. Among them there are famous university cities Oxford and Cambridge, London, Shakespeare’s birthplace — Stratford-upon- Avon, towns of Cardiff, Edinburgh and Glasgow.   London is one of the most famous capital cities of the world and every year it attracts crowds of visitors from abroad. They come to explore its historic buildings, to see its museums and galleries, its streets and parks. Sightseeing (2) tours in London usually start from Trafalgar Square. Tourists are particularly impressed by the Nelson Column there in the centre of the square. From Trafalgar Square you can go along down Whitehall and see the Houses of Parliament. It is a long building with a famous clock Big Ben in one of the Towers. Near the Parliament there is Westminster Abbey where many great Englishmen were buried. One of the best museums is the British Museum with its library, reading room and the collection of old manuscripts (3). One of the greatest monuments is St. Paul’s Cathedral (4).   94 miles north-west of London there is a small town which is called Stratford-upon-Avon, the birthplace of a great English poet W. Shakespeare. In Henley street there stands a one-storied wooden house, where the greatest English poet and playwright (5) was born. We can see a garden behind the house where the flowers, trees and plants mentioned in Shakespeare’s plays are growing now. Then we go to the church where he was buried. There is a bust (6) of Shakespeare that was carved (7) by a Dutch sculptor (8).   The Royal Shakespeare Theatre was opened in Stratford in 1932. Only Shakespeare’s plays are performed here. Every year on the 23-d of April people from the whole world come here to take part in celebrating Shakespeare’s birthday.   Those who come to Oxford and Cambridge are interested in their Universities most of all.   Oxford is situated 54 miles north-west of London. Many visitors to Oxford want to be shown Universities. There is no ‘university’ as such, thecomponent (9) parts of the University of Oxford are the colleges. Each college is practically autonomous (10), with its own set of rules of government.    Cambridge is the second oldest University in Great Britain after Oxford. There are 29 colleges in it. In the street you can see many young men wearing dark-blue or black clothes and square caps. The tradition goes back to the old times when the students had to wear black clothes. Many great men studied here: Cromwell, Newton, Byron, Darwin and others.   There is a prehistoric (11) monument in Great Britain which is called Stonehenge. Stones stand here in circles or are arranged into a horseshoe shape (12). A great many theories have been advanced (13) but exactly why it was built remains a mystery (14). Some scientists consider that it was built in order to calculate the annual calendar and seasons.

Vocabulary1. to be rich [rɪʧ] — быть богатым2. sightseeing [‘saɪtˌsiːɪŋ] — осмотр достопримечательностей3. manuscript [‘mænjəskrɪptˌ ‘mænjuskrɪpt] — рукопись4. St. Paul’s Cathedral — собор св. Павла5. playwright [‘pleɪraɪt] — драматург6. bust [bʌst] — бюст7. to be carved — вырезать из дерева8. sculptor [‘skʌlptə] — скульптор9. component [kəm’pəunənt] — составляющая10. autonomous [ɔː’tɔnəməs] — автономный11. prehistoric [ˌpriːhɪ’stɔrɪk] — доисторический12. horseshoe shape — в форме подковы13. advanced — выдвинутые14. to remain a mystery — оставаться тайной Questions1. What cities and towns are of special interest in Great Britain?2. What name is Stratford-upon-Avon associated with?3. What is the theatre of Stratford famous for?4. What attracts tourists to London?5. What differs Oxford and Cambridge from other Universities?

11. Music in my life

   Everybody likes music: some people enjoy classical music, others are fond of pop music. For some of them music is a voice for the thoughts and feelings. For others it’s a harmless way to relax (1) and have fun. So many people, so many opinions. You can sometimes understand better the inner world (2) of the person when you speak on music because it is a short way to see if your friend shares your musical values (3) or not.   Some young people prefer classical music to rock and pop music because they consider that rock and pop lost their importance nowadays. Everything is controlled by machines and technology. Ten or twenty years ago there were real artists writing real songs and now all you can get is synthesisers (4)and dance music.   But among young people there are many fans of pop music who consider that pop music is still better today than ever before. There are stars all over the world with lots of different styles and images. And it’s great! Pop is like big fun-fair (5). If you can’t have a good time it’s nobody’s fault (6) but yours. The names of the biggest stars in music of the 20th century are: Elvis Presley, the Beatles, Michael Jackson, Madonna and many others.   Best of all I like Michael Jackson who is called a living legend (7). I have many cassettes (8) with his songs and often listen to them because to my mind his music is first of all extraordinary and creative (9).   I prefer music among all arts because it speaks a universal language and makes the world brighter.

Vocabulary:1. harmless way to relax — тут: наилучший сполос расслабиться 2. inner world — внутренний мир3. share (one’s) musical values — разделять чие-то мнение 4. synthesiser [‘sɪnθəsaɪzə] — синтезатор5. fun-fair — ярмарка 6. fault — вина7. living legend — живая легенда8. cassettes — касеты 9. extraordinary [iks’tro:dnri] and creative — чрезвычайная и творческая (о музике) Questions1. Do you agree that pop music has become a part of everyday life?2. Does the attitude to pop music differ in various age groups? Why?3. What part does music occupy in your everyday life?4. What music do you prefer?5. Do you collect records and cassettes?6. What is your favourite rock (pop) singer?

12. Mass Media

   Mass media (1) is one of the most characteristic features (2) of modern civilization. People are united into one global community with the help of mass media. People can learn about what is happening in the world very fast using mass media. The mass media include newspapers, magazines, radio and television.   The earliest kind of mass media was a newspaper. The first newspaper was Roman handwritten (3) newssheet (4) called Acta Diurna started in 59 B.C. Magazines appeared in 1700’s. They developed from newspapers and booksellers’ (5) catalogues. Radio and TV appeared only in this century.   The most exciting and entertaining (6) kind of mass media is television. It brings moving pictures and sounds directly to people’s homes. So one can see events in faraway places just sitting in his or her chair.   Radio is widespread for its portability (7). It means that radios can easily be carried around. People like listening to the radio on the beach or picnic, while driving a car or just walking down the street. The main kind of radio entertainment is music.   Newspapers can present and comment on the news in much detail in comparison to radio and TV newscasts (8). Newspapers can cover much more events and news.   Magazines do not focus (9) on daily, rapidly changing events. They provide more profound (10) analysis of events of proceeding week. Magazines are designed to be kept for a longer time so they have cover (11) and binding (12) and are printed on better paper.

Vocabulary1. mass media — средства массовой информации2. feature — черта3. рукописное — написан от руки, рукописный4. newssheet — газетная страница, открытка5. bookseller — книготорговец6. entertaining — развлекательный7. portability — портативный8. newscast — обзор новостей9. focus — сосредотачиваться10. profound — глубокий11. cover — обложка12. binding – переплетQuestions1. What kinds of mass media do you know?2. What was the earliest kind of mass media?3. Why is television so exciting?4. What is the reason for widespread use of radio?5. What is the difference between a newspaper and a magazine?

13. The problems of the existence of Zoos

   Yesterday I read a very interesting article in The Times. It is entitled ‘Zoos Should Be Closed Down’.   The author of the article discusses the problem of the existence of zoos in today’s society and claims (1) that they are out-of-date and should be closed down. The article states that it is cruel to keep wild animals in captivity (2). Many animals are kept in cages which are too small for them and they obviously suffer. This can result in boredom and aggressive behaviour (3). Besides, many animals’ lifestyles are turned upside-down (4). Animals have to hunt for their food and to live in a climate natural habitat (5) but not in zoos.   Though the article I’ve read in The Times is rather informative and focuses on a very interesting problem, I don’t agree that zoos have no place in modern society.   In the first place zoos are obviously educational. They give people a unique opportunity to see wildlife. While children today can learn a lot about wild animals from books and programs on TV, this is not the same as seeing an animal.   Moreover, zoos are important centres of conservation. Without zoos, many species (6) would have become extinct (7).   Although the article ‘Zoos Should Be Closed Down’ concludes that it is cruel to keep animals in zoos, this is not the case. As a rule, zoos have modern buildings and animals are well cared of. So, in my view zoos perform a useful and important role in our society. And what do you think of the place of zoos? Do you agree with the statement that they should be closed down?

Vocabulary1. claim — утверждать2. captivity — плен, неволя3. behaviour — поведение4. upside-down — с ног на голову5. habitat — среда, окружение6. species — виды (животных)7. extinct — потухший, пропавшийQuestions1. What article did the boy read?2. What problem did the author of the article discuss?3. What did the article state?4. Do you agree that zoos have no place in modern society?5. What do you think of the place of zoos?6. Should they be closed down?

14. Cinema

Cinema plays an important role in the life of any society. It is an available popular form of art. Lots of people find going to the cinema one of the best ways of spending their leisure time. The movie audience is predominantly a young one.

Due to numerous video facilities, cinema attendances have declined sharply. But there is no denying the fact that the cinema-going habit is still a strong one.

No matter how large the place you live in is (whether it’s a big city or a small provincial town, or even a settlement) there’s most likely to be a cinema there.

There are such genres of feature films as the western, the thriller, the musical, the drama and the comedy. The performance lasts for two or three hours and most cinemas have at least 4 performances a day. There is no doubt that a good cinema show is an excellent entertainment and quite cheap. Of late cinema screens in this country have been dominated by films produced in the USA. And this tendency is growing.

As for me, I’m fond of going to the cinema. It’s a pity, I don’t always have time for it. It’s an open secret that we live in a very difficult time now. But people do need something amusing and pleasant, something to laugh at. That’s why I give my preference to comedies. The last comedy, I saw, is «Crocodile Dandy». The film tells about amusing adventures of a young lovely woman — reporter and a strong and brave crocodile hunter. At first, their relations were not friendly. She even looked down on him and he in return neglected her. But after he rescued her out of some difficult situations, their relations became more friendly. A happy end is an essential feature of American films. The same is true of this comedy. The main characters fall in love with each other in the end of the film.

 Vocabulary: to spend one’s leisure time — проводить свое свободное времяmovie audience — киноаудитория, кинозрителиpredominantly — по преимуществу, главным образомvideo facilities — видео-салонto emerge — появляться, возникатьcinema-going habit — привычка ходить в киноa settlement — поселокadventures — приключенияgrown-ups — взрослыеnot without pleasure — не без удовольствияto include — включатьfeature film — художественный фильмgenre — жанрwestern — вестернthriller — триллерperformance — сеансentertainment — развлечениеcinema screens — киноэкранto dominate — превалировать, занимать ведущее местоto be fond of — любить что-либо, нравиться кому-либоit’s a pity — жаль, к сожалениюit’s an open secret — ни для кого не секрет, что…to give preference to smth. — отдавать предпочтение чему-либоamusing adventures — забавные приключенияwoman-reporter — женщина-репортерhunter — охотникto look down on smb. — смотреть свысока, презирать кого-либоto rescue smb. out of smth. — спасти кого-либоan essential feature — важная чертаto fall in love with each other — влюбиться

Questions:

1. How do lots of people find going to the cinema?2. Who makes up the movie audience?3. Why have cinema attendances declined sharply?4. Is the cinema-going habit still a strong one?5. What genres of feature films are there?6. How many performances have many cinemas a day?7. What films have cinema screens in this country been dominated by?8. Are you fond of going to the cinema?9. In what time do we live now?10. What do you give your preference to?11. What does the film you saw last tell?12. What is an essential feature of American films?

15. Sport in Great Britain

Sport plays such a large part in British life that many idioms in the English language have come from the world of sport. For example, «that’s not cricket» means «that’s not fair» and «to play the game» means «to be fair».The most popular sport in England is football. A lot of people support their local clubs at matches on Saturday afternoons or watch the matches on television.The football league in England and Wales has four divisions. Each division contains twenty teams. There are two main prizes each season. The football league championship is won by the team that is top of the first division. The final of this competition takes place every May at the famous Wembley stadium in London.Some of the best-known clubs in England are Manchester United, Liverpool and Arsenal. But many clubs have problems with money at the moment. Some people say that the league is too big and that the players get paid too much. Others say that television is making the crowds stay at home.Sport has for a long time been a very important part of a child’s education in Britain, not just — as you may think to develop physical abilities, but also to provide a certain kind of moral education.Team games encourage such social qualities as enthusiasm, cooperation, loyalty and unselfishness.

Vocabulary:idiom — идиомаto support — поддерживатьlocal — местныйleague — лигаloyalty — преданность

Questions:1. Sport plays a large part in British life, doesn’t it?2. What is the most popular sport in England?3. How many divisions does league in England and Wales have?4. What are the most famous football clubs in England?5. What role does sport play in a child’s education?