олимпиада 11 класс


NAZARBAYEV INTELLECTUAL SCHOOL

Olympiad Tasks

11th grade

English Language Department

Taldykorgan

Task for Olympiad 11th grade (e,af,g)

Reading

Part 1

Read the text «The Truth about the Environment» and answer three groups of questions below.

The Truth about the Environment

For many environmentalists, the world seems to be getting worse. I They have developed a hit list of our main fears: that natural resources are running out; that the population is ever growing, 1 leaving less and less to eat; that species are becoming extinct in vast numbers; and that the planet’s air and water are becoming ever more polluted.

But a quick look at the facts shows a different picture. First, energy and other natural resources have become more abundant, not less so, since the book ‘The Limits to Growth’ was published in 1972 by a group of scientists. Second, more food is now produced per head of the world’s population than at any time in history. Fewer people are starving. Third, although species are indeed becoming extinct, only about 0,7% of them are’ expected to disappear in the next 50 years, not 25—50%, as has so often been predicted. And finally, most forms of environmental pollution either appear to have been exaggerated, or are transient — associated with the early phases of industrialisation and therefore best cured not by restricting economic growth, but by accelerating it. One form of pollution — the release of greenhouse gases that causes global warming — does appear to be a phenomenon that is going to extend well into our future, but its total impact is unlikely to pose a devastating problem. A bigger problem may well turn out to be an inappropriate response to it.

Yet opinion polls suggest that many people nurture the belief that environmental standards are declining and four factors seem to cause this disjunction between perception and reality.

One is the lopsidedness built into scientific research. Scientific funding goes mainly to areas with many problems. That may be wise policy, but it will also create an impression that many more potential problems exist than is the case.

Secondly, environmental groups need to be noticed by the mass media. They also need to keep the money rolling in. Understandably, perhaps, they sometimes overstate their arguments. In 1997, for example, the World Wide Fund for Nature issued a press release entitled: ‘Two thirds of the world’s forests lost forever’. The truth turns out to be nearer 20%.

Though these groups are run overwhelmingly by selfless folk, they nevertheless share many of the characteristics of other lobby groups. That would matter less if people applied the same degree of scepticism to environmental lobbying as they do to lobby groups in other fields. A trade organisation arguing for, say, weaker pollution controls is instantly seen as self-interested. Yet a green organisation opposing such a weakening is seen as altruistic, even if an impartial view of the controls in question might suggest they are doing more harm than good.

A third source of confusion is the attitude of the media. People are clearly more curious about bad news than good. Newspapers and broadcasters are there to provide what the public wants. That, however, can lead to significant distortions of perception. An example was America’s encounter with El Nino in 1997 and 1998. This climatic phenomenon was accused of wrecking tourism, causing allergies, melting the ski slopes and causing 22 deaths. However, according to an article in the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, the damage it did was estimated at $4 billion but the benefits amounted to some $19 billion. These came from higher winter temperatures (which saved an estimated 850 lives, reduced heating costs and diminished spring floods caused by meltwaters).

The fourth factor is poor individual perception. People worry that the endless rise in the amount of stuff everyone throws away will cause the world to run out of places to dispose of waste. Yet, even if America’s trash output continues to rise as it has done in the past, and even if the American population doubles by 2100, all the rubbish America produces through the entire 21st century will still take up only one 12,000th of the area of the entire United States.

So what of global warming? As we know, carbon dioxide emissions are causing the planet to warm. The best estimates are that the temperatures will rise by 2—3 °C in this century, causing considerable problems, at a total cost of $5,000 billion.

Despite the intuition that something drastic needs to be done about such a costly problem, economic analyses clearly show it will be far more expensive to cut carbon dioxide emissions radically than to pay the costs of adaptation to the increased temperature. A model by one of the main authors of the United Nations Climate Change Panel shows how an expected temperature increase of 2.1 degrees in 2100 would only be diminished to an increase of 1.9 degrees. Or to put it another way, the temperature increase that the planet would have experienced in 2094 would be postponed to 2100.

So this does not prevent global warming, but merely buys the world six years. Yet the costs of reducing carbon dioxide emissions, for the United States alone, will be higher than the cost of solving the world’s single, most pressing health problem: providing universal access to clean drinking water and sanitation. Such measures would avoid 2 million deaths every year, and prevent half a billion people from becoming seriously ill.

It is crucial that we look at the facts if we want to make the best possible decisions for the future. It may be costly to be overly optimistic — but more costly still to be too pessimistic.

Task 1

Decide for each sentence numbered 16 whether it is A (True), В (False) or the information is С (Not given) in the text.

TRUE if the statement agrees with the

writer’s claims

FALSE if the statement contradicts the

writer’s claims

NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say

what the writer thinks about this

A (True)

В

(False)

С

(Not given)

1. Environmentalists take a pessimistic view of the world for a number of reasons.

2. Data of the Earth’s natural resources has only been collected since 1972.

3. The number of starving people in the world has increased in recent years.

4. Extinct species are being replaced by new species.

5. Some pollution problems have been correctly linked to industrialization.

6. It would be best to attempt to slow down economic growth.

Task 2

Choose the correct letter А, В, С or D for sentences 711.

7.What aspect of scientific research does the writerexpress concern about in paragraph 4?

A.The need to produce results.

B.The lack of financial support.

C.The selection of areas to research.

D.The desire to solve every research problem.

8.The writer quotes from the Worldwide Fund for Natureto illustrate how

A.influential the mass media can be.

B.effective environmental groups can be.

C.the mass media can help groups raise funds.

D.environmental groups can exaggerate their claims.

9.What is the writer’s main point about lobby groups inparagraph 6?

A.Some are more active than others.

B.Some are better organized than others.

C.Some receive more criticism than others.

D.Some support more important issues than others.

10.The writer suggests that newspapers print items thatare intended to

A.educate readers.

B.meet their readers’ expectations.

C.encourage feedback from readers.

D.mislead readers.

11.What does the writer say about America’s wasteproblem?

A.It will increase in line with population growth.

B.It is not as important as we have been led to believe.

C.It has been reduced through public awareness of the issues.

D.It is only significant in certain areas of the country.

2. Use of English 11th grade (e,af,g)

Task 1

For questions 115 complete the following article by writing each missing word in the correct box on your answer sheet. Use only one word for each space.

Traffic Jams are Nothing New

In the age before the motor car, what was traveling in London like? Photographs taken 100 years ago showing packed streets indicate that it was much the (1)— as it is now. Commuters who choose the car to get to work probably travel at (2) — average speed of 17 kph from their homes (3)— the suburbs to offices in the center. (4) — is virtually the same speed that they (5— have travelled at in a carriage a century ago.

As towns and cities grow, (6)— does traffic, whether in the form of the horse and carriage (7)—the modern motor car. It would seem that, wherever (8) — are people who need to go somewhere, they would (9) — be carried than walk or pedal. The photographs show that, in terms (10) —congestion and speed, traffic in London hasn’t changed over the past 100 years. London has had traffic jams ever (11) —it became a huge city. It is only the vehicles that have changed.



However, although London had traffic congestion long (12)— the car came along, the age of the horse produced little unpleasantness apart (13) —the congestion. Today, exhaust fumes create dangerous smogs that cause breathing problems (14)— a great many people. Such problems could be reduced (15)— many of us avoided jams by using bicycles or taking a brisk

walk to school or work.

Task 2

For questions 1625 read the text below and use the words from the list on the right to form one word that fits in the same numbered space in the text.

The Art of Conversation in the UK

You’re having lunch with a friend in one of your (16) —places to eat, there’s nothing novel about the (17) — or the events that (18) — around you, and you know the menu pretty well. This leaves you to concentrate on the conversation, and you and your friend cover all the topics you normally do, from movies and restaurants to politics and (19)— . It’s the usual sort of conversation the two of you have and there’s little that’s really (20)—. But think about this: the two of you are able to talk (21)— without ever giving a single thought to how you’re able to do that. Forget all the factors that determine what you’re going to discuss, like when you last got together and what’s happening to both of you. Just think about the mechanics of the conversation: the way that you take turns — you talk and then your friend talks, then you, then your friend. The most (22)— aspect of a conversation is how these turns are taken but it is hard to say how this process actually works. (23)—, you and your friend do take turns and those turns are (24)— choreographed. Long pauses are awkward, and in most cases, very few gaps will appear in this conversation. Instead, you finish speaking, and without giving you time for a breath, your friend starts. Remember, in an hour-long lunch, there’s a lot of (25) — in switching back and forth. The puzzle is, how do the two of you manage it?

(16)FAVOUR

(17)SURROUND

FOLD

RELATE

SURPRISE

CONTINUE

ELEMENT

OBVIOUS

BEAUTY

PRECISE

Task 3

For questions 26—30 choose the best alternative A or B.

Colin intended to do a lot of walking in Wales, so he packed some sensible (A)/sensitive (B) outdoor clothes.

She was a very conscious (A)/conscientious (B) student and attended all her lectures.

Can you say (A)/tell (B) the difference between these two photographs?

Scientists are investigating the ways in which the oceans affect (A)/effect (B) the climate.

Every year he was supposed to go to Tokyo, and every year he could think of excuses for not making the journey (A)/ travel (B).

Task 4

For questions 3135 replace the words in italics with a suitable phrasal verb from the box. There are three extra phrasal verbs, which you do not need to use.

put down toget down to

stand up formake up for

come in forput in for

come up withkeep up with

31. We hope to (find) the solution in the near future.

32. It is hard to (start) work after a nice holiday.

33. They were well behind schedule and will have to work very hard to (compensate for) the

lost time.

34. It is difficult nowadays to (follow) new developments.

35. I know the teacher is going to criticize everything 1 have done. I hope you will (defend) me.

Task 5

There are 15 sentences, taken from different business letters. For questions 3640 group together those sentences which have a similar meaning. You should have five groups. Then put the sentences in each group in order according to how formal they are, with the most formal first. Part of the task has been done for you as an example.

A.If you need any more information, please feel free to ask me. \

B.I am in receipt of your letter dated 1 April.

C.When do you think the goods will get here?

D.I am writing in connection with your advertisement.

E.I would be grateful if you could tell me your prices.

F.Please could you tell me when the goods will arrive?

G.I have just seen your advert.

H. Thanks for your letter of 1 April.

I. Please could you possibly tell me your prices?

J. If you’d like any more details, please ask me.

K. Thank you for your letter dated 1 April.

L. Please can you tell me your prices.

M. I will appreciate it if you could tell me when the goods will arrive.

N. If you require any further information, please do not hesitate to contact me.

O. I am writing with reference to your advertisement.

Formal

Semi-formal

Informal

36.

A

37.

G

38.

M

39.

В

40.

L

Listening 11th grade (e,af,g)

Task 1.

You will hear 6 speakers. Match each speaker with the definitions A-G below. You can use each statement once only. There is one statement you do not need. You will hear a recording twice.

There will be restrictions for making the trip in the future.

Language was the only problem during the trip.

The trip back to the airport was delayed due to poor weather conditions.

The speaker felt quite free and flexible on his tour.

The speaker stayed with a local family during the trip.

The speaker experienced some severe weather conditions during the trip.

The group was under control of a guide who gave required provisions and instructions.

Sample answer:

Speaker 1 — A

Speaker 2 — B

Speaker 3— C

Task 2

You will hear a conversation between a customer and a shop assistant. Mark the following statements True, False or Not Stated.

The customer was only interested in buying dictionaries.

1/ True 2/ False3/ Not stated

The customer studies phonetic in the foreign language at college.

1/ True 2/ False3/ Not stated

The shop assistant suggested that the customer should buy s fantasy book for his friend.

1/ True 2/ False3/ Not stated

The customer likes detective stories by British authors.

1/ True 2/ False3/ Not stated

Best-sellers are always available in that book shop.

1/ True 2/ False3/ Not stated

The ship assistant helped the person to find a detective story to his taste.

1/ True 2/ False3/ Not stated

The book shop offers the service of ordering books for customers.

1/ True 2/ False3/ Not stated

Task 3

You will hear an interview of a famous top-model. In sentences 1-7 choose the correct option 1,2 or 3. You will hear a recording twice.

1/ Setting priorities depends on ______________________.

the contracts and magazine shoots.

the importance of your personal life.

the pressure you receive.

2/ The model considers that ______________________ made her popular.

working as a model.

magazine shoots.

TV commercials.

3/ Anna thinks it is important to know that models ______________________.

work hard to look great.

look great by nature.

are the center of public life.

4/ According to the model, the public ______________________.

should not make fun of a celebrity’s image.

doesn’t need to know every detail about celebrity.

should know all about celebrity.

5/ Anna says that she enjoys ______________________.

doing executive productions.

acting in films.

taking responsibility.

6/ The model says that her casual evening depends on ______________________.

being recognized.



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