Контрольная работа по грамматике будет в мае, содержание – в зависимости от пройденного материала.
При успешном выполнении заданий в течение семестра можно получить оценку автоматом.
Экзамен 2 курс
для менее подготовленных студентов:
Examination topics (объем – около 20 предложений)
Understanding race and ethnicity
Ethnic groups and minorities in the USA
Migration and the European Union
Racial and interethnic problems
Models of Ethnic Integration
Identity and Ethnicity
Communication and culture
Для более подготовленных студентов
Presentation topics (8-10 минут)
Socio-psychological factors of ethnic intolerance in Russia’s multicultural regions.
Multiculturalism is a must-be in the modern world.
Hotbeds of ethnic tension in any part of the world (at option).
Ethnic identity and national identity.
Для повышения оценки буду дополнительно задавать вопросы из разделов Discussion и определения из Glossary.
Контрольная работа по грамматике для всех
Множественное число существительных.
Степени сравнения прилагательных.
Времена активного залога.
1 Understanding race and ethnicity
Exercise1. Read and translate the text.
Within sociology, the terms race, ethnicity, minority, and dominant group all have very specific and different meanings. To understand the sociological perspective on race and ethnicity, it is important to understand the meanings of these concepts.
‘Ethnicity’ is a concept that is completely social in meaning. Ethnicity refers to the cultural practices and outlooks of a given community of people that set them apart from others. In fact, ethnicity is an attribute possessed by all members of a population, yet in practice ethnicity is most often associated with minority groups within a population.
An ethnic group is a social category of people who share a common culture, such as a common language, a common religion, or common norms, customs, practices, and history. Ethnic groups have a consciousness of their common cultural bond. An ethnic group does not exist simply because of the common national or cultural origins of the group, however. They develop because of their unique historical and social experiences, which become the basis for the group’s ethnic identity. For example, prior to immigration to the United States, Italians did not think of themselves as a distinct group with common interests and experiences. However, the process of immigration and the experiences they faced as a group in the United States, including discrimination, created a new identity for the group. Some examples of ethnic groups include Italian Americans, Polish Americans, Mexican Americans, Arab Americans, and Irish Americans. Ethnic groups are also found in other societies, such as the Pashtuns in Afghanistan or the Shiites in Iraq, whose ethnicity is based on religious differences.
Like ethnicity, race is primarily, though not exclusively, a socially constructed category. A race is a group that is treated as distinct in society based on certain characteristics. Because of their biological or cultural characteristics, which are labeled as inferior by powerful groups in society, a race is often singled out for differential and unfair treatment. It is not the biological characteristics that define racial groups, but how groups have been treated historically and socially. Society assigns people to racial categories (White, Black, etc.) not because of science or fact, but because of opinion and social experience. In other words, how racial groups are defined is a social process; it is socially constructed. Racism means falsely ascribing inherited characteristics of personality or behavior to individuals of a particular physical appearance. A racist is someone who believes that a biological explanation can be given for characteristics of inferiority supposedly possessed by people of one physical stock or another. Institutional racism refers to patterns of discrimination based on ethnicity that have become structured into existing social institutions. New racism describes racist attitudes that are expressed through notions of cultural difference, rather than biological inferiority.
A minority group is any distinct group in society that shares common group characteristics and is forced to occupy low status in society because of prejudice and discrimination. A group may be classified as a minority on the basis of ethnicity, race, sexual preference, age, or class status. It is important to note that a minority group is not necessarily the minority in terms of numbers, but it is a group that holds low status in relation to other groups in society (regardless of the size). The group that assigns a racial or ethnic group to subordinate status in society is called the dominant group.
2. Answer the questions.
1)What does the term “ethnicity” refer to?
2)What is an ethnic group?
3)What is the basis of ethnic group identity?
4)Can ethnicity be based on religious differences?
5)Do biological characteristics define a racial group?
6)How does society assign people to racial categories?
7)What does racism mean?
8)Who is a racist?
9)What does new racism describe?
10)On what bases may a group be classified as a minority?
3. Give Russian equivalents for:
The sociological perspective; to set smb. apart from others; to have a consciousness of common cultural bond; the common national or cultural origins of the group; a distinct group; a socially constructed category; labeled as inferior; singled out for differential and unfair treatment; to assign people to racial categories; falsely ascribing; characteristics of inferiority; physical stock; patterns of discrimination; racist attitudes; forced to occupy low status; in relation to other groups; in terms of numbers; regardless of the size.
4. Complete the sentences.
1) ‘Ethnicity’ is a concept that is completely … . 2) In practice ethnicity is most often associated with minority groups … . 3) Ethnic groups have a consciousness of their common … . 4) The process of immigration and the experiences they faced as a group in the United States, including discrimination, created … . 5) It is not the biological characteristics that define racial groups, but how groups have been treated … . 6) A group may be classified as a minority on the basis of ethnicity, race, sexual preference, age, … . 7) Racism means falsely ascribing inherited characteristics of personality or behavior to individuals of a particular…. 8) The group that assigns a racial or ethnic group to subordinate status in society is called … .
Exercise 5. Give a short summary of the text including the definitions of the main terms.
(устно, 4 балла)
Exercise 6. Read the text.
Sociological Theories of Race and Ethnicity
Race and ethnicity are important concepts in the field of sociology and are ones that are studied a great deal. Race plays a large role in everyday human interactions and sociologists want to study how, why, and what the outcomes are of these interactions.
Sociologists look at many questions related to race and ethnicity, including:
What is race? What is ethnicity? Why does society treat racial and ethnic groups differently, and why is there social inequality between these groups? How are these divisions and inequalities able to persist so stubbornly, and how extensive are they?
There are several sociological theories about why prejudice, discrimination, and racism exist. Current sociological theories focus mainly on explaining the existence of racism, particular institutional racism. The three major sociological perspectives (functionalist theory, symbolic interaction theory, and conflict theory) each have their own explanations to the existence of racism.
Functionalist theorists argue that in order for race and ethnic relations to be functional and contribute to the harmonious conduct and stability of society, racial and ethnic minorities must assimilate into that society. Assimilation is a process in which a minority becomes absorbed into the dominant society – socially, economically, and culturally.
Symbolic interaction theorists look at two issues in relation to race and ethnicity. First, they look at the role of social interaction and how it reduces racial and ethnic hostility. Second, they look at how race and ethnicity are socially constructed. In essence, symbolic interactionists ask the question, “What happens when two people of different race or ethnicity come in contact with one another and how can such inter-racial or interethnic contact reduce hostility and conflict?”
The basic argument made by conflict theorists is that class-based conflict is an inherent and fundamental part of society. These theorists thus argue that racial and ethnic conflict is tied to class conflict and that in order to reduce racial and ethnic conflict, class conflict must first be reduced.
Exercise 7. Put 5-7 comprehension questions on the text and ask them your partner.(3)
Do you agree that many popular beliefs about race are mythical?
Should the concept of race be discarded in sociology?
How might an unprejudiced person find himself or herself acting in a discriminatory way?
Speak in more detail about one of sociological theories of race and ethnicity.
2 Ethnic groups and minorities in the USA
Exercise1. Read and translate the text.
The United States is a country of many ethnic groups made up of people who share one or more characteristics which differ them from other groups. They may share specific racial or physical traits, speak their own language or practice a distinctive religion. They are usually bound to one another by common traditions and values, and by their own folklore and music. Some of their activities may be determined by unique institutions, such as a complex family structure or the social practices within their communities.
The Harvard Encyclopedia of American Ethnic Groups lists 106 major groups in the United States today, including Native Americans, Albanians, Afro-Americans, Arabs, Burmese, Chinese, Eskimos, Filipinos, Greeks, Irish, Italians, Jews, Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, and Swiss. In fact, there are really more. For example, there are more than 170 Native American tribes.
For the sake of simplicity, the Encyclopedia treats them as one. In the same way, Syrians, Jordanians, Egyptians and Palestinians are all counted as Arabs.
Most members of ethnic groups long established in the States have lost much of the distinctiveness of their culture. Third generation of Germans, for example, may only speak English and think of themselves as “plain” Americans. Third generation Chinese, however, often retain their language and many cultural and family traditions. They usually define themselves as Chinese-Americans. Members of most ethnic groups are full participants in the broad tapestry of American life, even if they keep alive many of their old traditions. The Irish, the Danes, the Germans, the Italians, the Jews, the Mormons and the Catholics, for example, have moved into almost all social, economic and political sectors.
Some ethnic groups, however, suffer disadvantages which continue to keep them from freely participating in some areas of American professional and cultural life. Poverty and all the deprivation that goes with it often make it more difficult for Afro-Americans and Puerto-Ricans to acquire the social and educational skills needed to enter more desirable and more highly paid occupations. Racial prejudice and discrimination against people with different colour skin has often meant that many members of these groups have been forced to live and work in narrow sectors of American life. Recent Hispanic immigrants, such as Mexicans and Puerto-Ricans, also have encountered discrimination based on their ethnicity.
Those ethnic groups which suffer systematic economic and social disadvantages are called minority groups. About one of every five Americans is a member of such a group. In the past, many minority groups overcame the barriers that confronted them. The Irish, the Germans, the Catholics, and the Jews all faced hostility and discrimination which severely restricted their opportunities for decades. Over time they largely overcame those barriers and became fully integrated into national life. There are many signs today that other minorities are following the same path. This is also encouraged with the help of an official policy of political correctness.
New waves of immigrants have recently begun to arrive from Korea, the Philippines, Haiti, Southeast Asia and Eastern Europe. These groups, following the pattern set by earlier waves of immigrants from China and Japan, are establishing themselves in small businesses, working tirelessly, and investing all of their efforts and money to ensure that their children receive the education and learn the skills necessary to build and prosperous and satisfying life.
Exercise 2. Answer the questions.
What do people belonging to an ethnic group share?
How many ethnic groups does the Harvard Encyclopedia of Ethnic Groups list?
What sort of disadvantages do some ethnic groups suffer today?
What groups are called minority groups?
What barriers keep some ethnic people from realizing the opportunities in life?
Where do some new waves of immigration come from and what are their plans?
Exercise 3. Give English equivalents for:
Исповедовать религию, отличную от других; быть связанными общими традициями и ценностями; коренные жители Америки (индейцы); рассматривать как единое целое; утратить многое из своих культурных особенностей; обычные Американцы; широкий спектр американской жизни; бедность и сопутствующие ей лишения; испаноязычные иммигранты; постоянно испытывать трудности экономического и социального характера; сталкиваться с враждебностью; ограничивать чьи-либо возможности; следовать образцу.
Exercise 4. Give Russian equivalents for:
To share specific racial or physical traits; to be determined by unique institutions; for the sake of simplicity; to retain language and traditions; full participants in the broad tapestry of American life; to acquire the social and educational skills; to enter highly paid occupations; to be forced to live and work in narrow sectors of American life; to encounter discrimination based on ethnicity; to overcome barriers that confronted them; to become fully integrated into national life; to follow the same path; to establish themselves in small businesses; to build a prosperous and satisfying life.
What do you know about ‘political correctness’? In groups do the brainstorming work and write all the associations that come into your mind when you hear the collocation ‘political correctness’ and organize the vocabulary into a mind map.
Are there different ethnic groups in Russia? Where do they come from? Where do they live? How do they differ from the majority of people in your country with respect to customs, religion, clothing, food, music, etc.?
Exercise 5 . Read the text.
Nation of immigrants
The United States is a country of immigrants. Since its early days, the country has admitted more than 50 million newcomers, a larger number of immigrants than any country in history. Most people came, and still come today, for wealth, land, and freedom.
In the past, the majority of Americans considered themselves WASPs – white Anglo-Saxon Protestant. Many immigrants tried to preserve the traditions, religion, and language of their particular culture, but if they did not want to feel separate from the dominant WASP culture, they learned English and adopted English customs.
Today America is again faced with an assimilation problem. The majority of the newest immigrants come from Mexico, Latin America, or Asia. Among these newcomers, the Asians seem most willing to assimilate. They encourage their children to speak accentless English and play American games. Mexican-Americans, now comprising about one-fifth of California’s total population, are not so easily assimilated. They generally have a strong sense of their own culture and often marry among themselves.
Since the 1060s, with changes in the ethnic composition, American’s attitudes towards ethnic and religious differences have altered. Pressure on immigrants to Americanize and altogether forget their background has relaxed. High political offices are held by non-whites and non-Protestants. Americans are aware that the national ethnic, religious identity – WASP – which once unified the country under certain shared values, has disappeared. In a country where currently 6 per cent of the population is foreign-born, where more than 10 per cent speaks a language other than English at home, diversity is a major characteristic. The well-known picture of America as a melting pot where all groups come together, creating a new, distinct American type, is not an adequate metaphor. On the whole, a more accurate picture of American society today, one that conveys its astonishing variety of cultures, each preserving its own distinctiveness, is vegetable soup.
Americans continue to debate the issue of immigration. Many Americans fear that immigrants may lower the quality of life in America by taking away American’s jobs and by importing the same social and economic ills that exist in the countries they left. Further more, they argue that tightening restrictions is a necessary measure to preserve America’s national identity. On the other hand, many Americans more optimistically emphasize the cultural wealth and diversity which immigrants have been bringing to the nation since its conception.
Exercise 6. Put 10 questions on the text and ask them the class.(письменно 3 балла)
Exercise 7. Write a 100-word summary of the text.(4 балла)
Study the case and do the tasks that follow.
Case study A NEWSWEEK POLL ON IMMIGRATION
The Gallup Organization interviewed 751 adults by telephone. ‘Don’t knows” not shown.
1 Do you think the number of immigrants now entering the US from each of the following areas is too many, too few or about right?
2 Do you feel that English only should be used in all public schools, public signs, government forms and official messages in the United States. Or do you support thr use of a second language in some areas to help immigrants participate in education, business, public affairs and daily life?
English only 47% Second language 49%
3 Some people say the government should make it much more difficult for illegal aliens to get work in the US by penalizing companies that knowingly hire them. Others oppose such a penalty because it would restrict US businesses too much and limit opportunities for legal immigrants – especially Hispanics. Which view comes close to your own?
Penalize companies 61%Oppose penalties 28%
4 Some people propose that the federal government issue identity cards to all citizens and legal immigrants to distinguish them from those who are in the country illegally. Others oppose this plan on the grounds that it would give the federal government too much knowledge and control over all Americans. Which view comes closest to your own?
Issue ID Card 42% Oppose ID Card 52%
5 Some people say there are too many illegal immigrants living in this country for the authorities to arrest and deport them. They feel we should have an amnesty to let most of aliens to live here legally. Others say the government should do everything it can to arrest those living in this country illegally. Which comes closer to your view?
Amnesty for Those Here 34% Arrest and Deport 55%
6 Do you agree or disagree with the following statements?
Immigrants take jobs from US workers
Many immigrants work hard – often taking jobs that Americans don’t want
Many immigrants wind up on welfare and raise taxes for Americans
Immigrants help improve our culture with their different cultures and talents
Determine whether the statements are true or false and correct the false ones with reference to the information given in the Newsweek poll.
About half the Americans surveyed believe that too many Asians immigrate into the US.
Most Americans believe that the fastest way of being integrated into American life is speaking only English.
A vast majority of Americans believe that firms which hire illegal aliens should be penalized.
Most Americans feel that the government would have too much control over them if identity cards were introduced.
Most Americans would not like to see illegal immigrants return to their countries.
There is almost unanimous agreement that illegal immigrants are hard-working people.
About a third of all Americans agree that many immigrants are a social and economic burden for society.
The notion that the culture of immigrants enriches the American culture is not shared by most people surveyed.
How is immigration handled in Russia? Are there any major restrictions?
What do you know about the immigrants’ motives for leaving their mother countries and what are their expectations about living in Russia?
To what extent do you think immigrants of different ethnic backgrounds should be integrated into society? How do ethnic minorities themselves feel about this issue?
Prepare and carry out a debate on the motion “Russia should strictly prohibit all illegal immigration”
Writing (10 баллов)