ТЕМЫ

My Favourite Book

My favourite book is «The Old Man and the Sea» by Ernest Hemingway. This story is one of the well-known works of the writer. The author depicts the characters of the old man and the boy and their relations very vividly and skillfully. Santiago, the old man, was one of the writer’s beloved characters. The old man was a born fisherman, but he was not a butcher and fished only for a living. He was very lonely. He had a devoted friend — the boy, Manolin. The boy loved the old man for his kind heart, his devotion to the sea. Manolin was like a son to Santiago. He took care of the old man’s food and his belongings. The old man was glad to pass his experience to the boy. He looked forward to going to the sea together with the boy. All Santiago’s life had been in preparation for the battle with big fish. He knew that he had been born for this and it was time to prove it. A strong man at last had met a strong fish. The battle was a difficult one and full of danger. Though the sharks had eaten the fish and nothing had left but the backbone, the old man had morally won the battle. Santiago’s words «man can be destroyed but not defeated» are the main idea of this story. «The Old Man and the Sea» is a masterpiece for its imaginative language and the description of nature.

I want to tell you about reading in my life. Reading plays a very important role in the life of people. I’m fond of reading. In my opinion, books are a source of emotional inspiration and romantic feelings. Reading is very useful, because books enrich our experience with that or the other people. Besides, books help me to continue my own education. The world of books is full of wonders. Reading books you can find, yourself in different lands, countries, islands, seas, oceans. We enjoy the beauty and wisdom of books which teach us to be kind and clever, brave and honesty to understand other people. People are fond of reading different kinds of books. There are books of different genres: love and detective stories, thrillers and historical novels, tales, works after classical and modern writers. Fairy tales are enjoyed and read by children, books about adventures and journeys are enjoyed by those who are fond of travelling. Legends and myths are read by those who are fond of history. I’m a great lover of the English and American literature. Among my favourite writers are W. Shakespeare and Ch. Dickens. Books help us to be good friends. They teach us to understand the beauty of nature, to take care of it, to love our homeland. I read books Russian and Belarusian writers too.

I can’t imagine my life without reading. You can find all kinds of books at the library. Every school in our country has a library. A school library is a collection of textbooks and books for reading. Our pupils and teachers go for reading, to look some magazines or newspapers or to prepare for a report.

Books teach us what is right and what is wrong, to understand the world and people in it. It educates a person, enriches his intellect.

How Did I Spend My Summer Holidays

After each term in school we had our holidays. It’s fun to have holidays, you can do whatever you like, you don’t have to get up too early, do your homework or think of troubles which occur very often at school. Most of all I liked summer holidays, they were the longest ones, though, when winter was snowy and and frosty, I enjoyed my winter holidays skating and skiing, sledging and making a snowman or having a fight with snowballs.

I’d like to tell you about my summer holidays I spent in Sochi. It was just three years ago. My parents and me were sitting in the living-room discussing our plans for the summer holidays. My father suggested that we should go to Sochi. On hearing that I jumped up with joy and said it was a wonderful idea. My mother wasn’t against the idea either.

So one summer morning we started for our journey to Sochi. First, we travelled to Odessa by plane and from there we got to Sochi by boat. We stayed in Odessa for three days, our relatives live there and they gave us board and lodging. So we had an excellent opportunity to go round the city, to see beautiful monuments to the famous people who had lived in Odessa, museums and the Odessa Opera House.

We enjoyed our trip from Odessa to Sochi. The Black Sea was calm. We sat on deck in the lounge chairs and looked atthe sea. I like Sochi very much. We bathed and went boating and swimming, lay in Jk the sun on the beach. In the evenings we went for a walk or dropped in at a cafe to have ice-cream or juice. My father showed us the famous Botanical Gardens, we went for hikes in the mountains, we saw the magnificent Augura Waterfalls.

My Day

My every day activities are quite routine. They do not differ much from those of any other pupil of our country. My working day begins at 7 o’clock in the morning when I get up. I do my physical jerks, wash, brush my teeth and comb my hair. Then I have breakfast. For breakfast I usually have toasted bread, fried eggs, corn flakes, tea or coffee and some jam. At ten to eight I leave for school. I go to school five days a week. It takes me twenty minutes to get to school by bus. At school I usually have six or seven lessons. The lessons are over at two o’clock. I return home at three o’clock. I have lunch and take a short rest.I go for a walk with my friends. In spring we play football, in winter we play hockey or ski. I am back at home at a quarter past four. At four thirty I begin to do my home-work. It takes me three hours to do it. On Monday, Wednesday and Friday I attend preparatory courses at the University. I leave home, at four thirty and come back at eight thirty. My parents usually return home at seven o’clock. When I am at home we have dinner at seven thirty. After dinner we go to the sitting-room. There we read books, watch TV, chat with the friends on the phone. At ten o’clock I take a shower, brush my teeth and go to bed. I fall asleep fast and have no dreams.

My Favourite Subject

Speaking about my favourite subject I must admit that I was privileged to study at a school where the English language was taught since the first form. It wasn’t a specialized English school, it was the school of fine-arts. Since the first days at school English has become my favourite subject. At the age of 7 we were introduced into foreign speech and were taught to read, write and listen to short texts in English. Our English teacher made each lesson an interesting game which we enjoyed very much. It was exiting and easy to learn English at that time by plaing games and singing songs. We looked at the pictures the teacher showed us, repeated the words after her, asked her questions: »What’s your name? » and full of pride we answered: »My name is …» We wanted everybody to see that we knew English.

The first lessons, first weeks and months passed. As we grew older our lessons became more instructive and serious. Our optimism and courage disappeared and a real job began. Not everybody liked it, not everybody wanted to work hard everyday. Any language is like music. It requires, everyday training. And this training consists of four main parts of exercises, if you like. They are listening, reading, writing and speaking. And the more you work, the more you do, the better you understand: you know to little, and you will discover that English consists of Her Majesty Grammar. A first it seems illogical and impos-sible to understand. And spelling! Everybody knows that in English you write Manchester and read Liverpool. And why only 26 letters? A lot of questions. You are trying to find the answers. The more you find, the more you understands the laws that govern this language.

You see how laconically beautiful it is, how expressive and impressive it can be. I think only at this moment you actually begin working at your English because you can understand what you need, what for you need it.

It is not surprising that many intellectuals and well-educated people know many foreign languages, because I have always interested in foreign countries, their culture, and people. I learn English because I understand that I can use it. I want to learn English in particular not only it is the language of such great countries as Great Britain or the USA because it became an international language of progressive science, engineering.

Knowledge of foreign languages helps young people of different counties to develope friendship and understanding. When they meet at festivals or in interna-tional friendship camps, they can associate in English.

I learn English, because I want to read foreign literature in original. I like such English and American writers as M. Twain, J. London, L. Carroll, W. Shakespeare, M. Michel and others. I understand that I must learn English because I can be able to go to go to the library an take books by English and American writers in original. I like to read books and newspapers, too. If I know, for example, English well I’ll be able to read «The Morning Stap», «The Daily News». I know that these are very popular newspapers.

Today, one person in seven of the world’s population either knows English or learns it. So a modern and cultured person must learn foreign language.

I think that to know English today is absolutely necessary for every educated men, for every good specialist.

My future career

When you leave school you understand that the time to choose your future profession, your future life has become. It’s not an easy to make the right choice of a job. I have known for long time that leaving school is the beginning of my independent life, the beginning of a far more serious examination of my abilities and character.

What do I want to be when I leave school? It’s very important question for me. A few years ago it was difficult for me to give a definite answer. As the years passed I changed my mind a lot of times about what science or field of industry to specialize in. It’s difficult to make up my mind and choose one of the hundreds jobs to which I might be better suited. A coupe of years ago I wanted to become a doctor, you know I wanted to help people who had problems with health. Then I wanted to become a policeman, then a spaceman, I even wanted to become a professional football player. But all of them now are in the past; they were like children’s dreams and nothing more. Now I have already decided what to do. I’d like to be an aviator. I know that it’s very difficult. I should know perfectly everything about the planes, airports, weather and other things. You know that the weather is very important thing for the flights too. I must be well educated and well informed. So that’s why at first I am going to go to the Aviation University in Moscow, then when I finish studding I’ll go to my country to try to get a job in the air companies. You know may be something will be not OK, because I don’t know what will happen tomorrow, but I know that I’ll do everything to realize my plane and my dreams.

I also want to say that the profession should be chosen according to the character and hobbies of the person. That’s why parents mustn’t make their children choose the thing they like (parents like). Children must do it themselves. Because they must love the thing they do, believe that people need them and their job will bring them more pleasure.

My household chores

Doing household chores is a necessary part of our life. People all over the world try to work hard. They usually have a lot of duties. I have a lot of duties, too. My parents are often tired and I must take care of them. Everybody is happy when the home is always bright and clean. Day after day I can have fun when I do my household chores. I sweep the floor, tidy my room, clean the shoes, dust the furniture, make food myself and do every kind of work. It’s not easy to do every kind of work at home, but I can learn to do everything myself. When I do my household chores well, everybody in the family is happy. If I have a holiday party at home, I can help my mother and grandmother a lot. How happy mother is to see everything bright! It’s a nice present for my parents to tidy the house! It’s wonderful to make people happy! If I have time, my mother asks me to go to the shop. I go there and buy bread, eggs and sugar. Very often I go to the market with my mother. We buy some vegetables and fruits. Then I help my mother to carry them. My mother cooks well; sometimes I help her when she makes cakes. She usually makes them before holidays and on my birthday. We have got a country house. There is a big garden with many trees, bushes and flowers in it. There is a lot of work in our garden and I help my parents to do it. We must do our household chores, because if we hadn’t done it our flat would look like a trash can. I usually clean my flat on Friday. First of all I clean with duster table, piano, some boxes, TV, lamp and many other things. At second I clean with vacuum cleaner carpet in my room, then I clean carpet in mother’s and father’s room. I usually wash the floor in all rooms. Then I wash bath-shell with «Pemolux». Later I wash stove with «Fairy». Every day I must feed my cat. It is very big and fat. I cook a fish soup I to it. After supper I always wash plates and dishes. Sometimes I cook myself, but my cookies up aren’t so nice as mother’s. I think I make an impact in tiding our place. It is necessary to help the parents. Try to make people happy and you will be happy yourself

The USA

There are fifty states in the United States of America. Two of these states, Alaska and Hawaii, are not connected to the other states. The US are washed by the Pacific Ocean in the west, by the Atlantic Ocean in the east, by the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico in the south. In the north are situated Great Lakes. More than 250 million people live in the United States. The United States is a young country. Its written history is only a few hundred years old. It is sometimes called the “New World”. Over the last 400 years millions of people have come to start a new life in this “New World”. The people of the United States are a mixture of many different nationalities. These different people brought to their new land a wonderful mixture of customs and traditions. The German brought Christmas trees. The Irish brought St. Patrick’s Day celebrations. The Scots brought Halloween. The US government has three branches. The 1st branch is the Congress. The Congress is a meeting of representatives from all states. The people elect those representatives. The Congress makes the laws that everybody must obey. The Congress meets in the US Capitol in Washington, D.C. The Congress is divided into two parts, the Senate and the House of Representatives. Every state, no matter how large or small, sends two people to the Senate. These people are called senators. There are one hundred senators in the Senate. A senator’s term is six years. Each state also sends people to the House of Representatives. They are called congressmen or congresswomen. The number of congressmen from each state depends on the number of people who live in the state. All in all there are 425 congressmen in the House of Representatives. A representative’s term is two years. The Constitution gives many powers to the Congress. One important power of the Congress is the power to declare war. The 2nd branch of government is the President and his helpers. They carry out the laws that the Congress makes. The President signs bills and then they become law. The Vice President and members of the Cabinet help the President to make decisions. The US President is Commander in Chief of the country’s armed forces. A person who wants to become President must be at least 35 years old and must live in the United States for at least 14 years before becoming President. The President’s term is four years and one can be President for one or two terms, but not longer. The 3rd branch of government is the Supreme Court. It is made up of nine judges – the most important judges in the land. They have to make sure that the President and the Congress follow the Constitution. Americans are very proud of their Constitution. It was written more than 200 years ago and it is still working!

Sights of the USA

One should start sightseeing in America from Washington. There are many beautiful parks and gardens in Washington. It is interesting to see the famous cherry trees, the gift from Japan. They were brought to America in 1912. The NASA museum is devoted to the USA achievements in the exploration of space. Capitol Hill is the highest place in the city. There is a law that forbids to build houses higher than the Capitol on Capitol Hill. From the Capitol to the White House Pennsylvania Avenue used for all processions and parades runs. The Lincoln Memorial and Washington Monument are the most famous ones in Washington. The Washington Monument is one of the most impressive sights in the city. It is situated in Potomac Park. It was erected to the memory of the first president of the USA in 1888. It is called “the Pencil” because it is one of the tallest stone constructions in the world and the tallest in the USA.

There are many sights in Philadelphia, for example, the National Historical Park. You can also see the Liberty Bell, which is a symbol of freedom. The sound of this Bell told the people about the first public reading of the Declaration of Independence in July 1776. You can also visit the Philadelphia Museum of Art — one of the greatest art museums of the world.

One should also visit New York, the city of skyscrapers with the Statue of Liberty. A new American Immigration Museum has been opened at the base of the statue. The Metropolitan Opera House, the Madison Square Garden, the Modern Arts Museum are popular among the tourists. One can also visit Lyndon B. Johnson Space Centre near Houston in Texas or go to Florida or California to enjoy the Atlantic or Pacific Ocean beaches. And I would like to see them all myself.

London

London is the capital of the United Kingdom, its economic, political and cultural center. It is one of the world’s most important ports and one of the largest cities in the world. London with its suburbs has a population of about 11 million people.

London has been a capital for nearly a thousand years. Many of its ancient buildings still stand. The most famous of them are the Tower of London, Westminster Abbey and St. Paul’s Cathedral. Most visitors also want to see the Houses of Parliament and the many magnificent museums.

Once London was a small Roman town of the north bank of the Thames. Slowly it grew into one of the world’s major cities.

Different areas of London seem like different cities. The West End is a rich man’s world of shops, offices and theatres. The City of London is the district where most offices and banks are concentrated; the Royal Exchange and the Bank of England are here, too. The East End is a district where mostly working people live. The old port area is now called «Docklands». There are now new office buildings in Docklands, and thousands of new flats and houses.

By the day the whole of London is busy. At night, offices are quiet and empty, but the West End stays alive, because this is where Londoners come to enjoy themselves. There are two opera houses here, several concert halls and many theatres, as well as cinemas. In nearby Soho the pubs and restaurants and nightclubs are busy half the night.

Sightseeing in Russia

Millions of people all over the world are fond of travelling. They travel to see other countries and continents, to discover different ways of life, to meet different people and to practise foreign languages. It goes without saying that travelling broadens the mind. While travelling we can see and learn a lot of things that we can never learn staying at home and watching TV or reading books. That’s why a lot of foreign people come to Russia to get acquainted with Russian culture, with Russian customs and traditions.

Russia has always been a country of mystery attractive for foreigners. There are lots of villages and towns in Russia famous for their specific crafts: painted boxes in Palekh, wooden tableware in Khokhloma and toys in Dymkovo. Thousands of foreigners visit Russia to enjoy the typical Russian log houses, decorated with wood carvings.

Tourists like to visit old Russian towns and cities famous for their ancient architecture. They are especially attracted by Russian orthodox cathedrals, churches and monasteries. One of the most interesting old cities in Russia is Novgorod, or Novgorod the Great, as it was called in the old times. It is a treasury of architecture, painting and applied art created over the 11th to 17th centuries. The first records of the city on the Volkhov River date back to the year of 859. Now Novgorod has expanded far beyond its former limits. It is an important industrial and cultural centre, located on the busy highway linking Moscow and St. Petersburg.

The focal point of the city is the Detinets, or the Kremlin. The present-day Kremlin stems largely from the 15th century. Several alterations made in the 16th and 17th centuries were minor and did not affect its appearance. Novgorod’s contribution to the development of Russian culture is outstanding. No other city excels Novgorod in the number of ancient monuments of architecture. The Novgorod Museum of History, Architecture and Art shows visitors the history of the medieval Novgorod. Its artistic value lies primarily in its collection of medieval icon painting.

There is a lot to see in Russia, but first of all foreign tourists visit the capital of our country, Moscow, its political, economic, commercial and cultural centre. They dream of visiting Red Square, which is called the heart of Moscow. Perhaps, the most ancient monument of Red Square is St. Basil’s Cathedral. With its nine beautifully painted cupolas, it is a real masterpiece of ancient Russian architecture.

If you come to Moscow for the first time, you should by all means visit the Kremlin, which is very impressive. On the territory of the Kremlin you can see old cathedrals, the Bell Tower of Ivan the Great, the State Kremlin Palace, the Tsar Cannon and the Tsar Bell, the biggest cannon and bell in the world. The tallest Kremlin tower, the Spasskaya Tower, has become the symbol of the country.

If you leave the Kremlin by the Trinity Gate you will come to the Alexandrovsky Gardens. The first thing to do in the Gardens is to stand by the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, still and silent. Not far from the Alexandrovsky Gardens, behind the Bolshoi Kamenny Bridge, you will see Christ the Saviour Cathedral, with its huge beautiful gilded dome. Foreigners are usually surprised by the number of churches and cathedrals in and around the city. There are also a lot of beautiful palaces, old mansions and monuments in Moscow.

There are more than 80 museums in our capital. The largest museums are the Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts, whose collections include works of art of the ancient Orient and ancient Egypt, and the State Tretyakov Gallery, which houses a rich collection of Russian painting and Russian icons. Other unique museums in Moscow are the State History Museum, the All-Russia Museum of Decorative, Applied and Folk Art, the Polytechnical Museum and many others. Moscow is famous for its theatres, too. The best-known of them is the Bolshoi Opera House. Drama theatres and studios are also very popular.

Another interesting place to visit in Moscow is the All-Russia Exhibition Centre which occupies an area of 530 acres. The Exhibition Centre is situated in a beautiful park. The most admired feature of the Exhibition Centre is its fountains. The “Friendship of the Nations” and the “Stone Flower” fountains are the most beautiful. The Exhibition Centre is a large cultural and commercial complex where different international exhibitions and fairs are held.

One of the most famous sights of the city is the Moscow Metro and a journey by Metro will be unforgettable. In the Metro you do not feel as if you’re underground. This is due to the unique architecture and the artistic design of the stations, which are more like palaces. No two stations are alike; most of them have their own appearance.

Of course, every foreigner should visit St. Petersburg, the second largest city in Russia and one of the most splendid cities in the world. It was founded in 1703 by Peter the Great at the mouth of the Neva River. Now it is an important industrial, cultural and educational centre.

St. Petersburg is indeed a wonderful city: at every turn there is something to catch your eye. The Winter Palace, St. Isaac’s Cathedral, the Peter-and-Paul Fortress, and the Admiralty Building attract thousands of tourists from every corner of the world. Petersburg’s many museums house some of the world’s most famous art collections. The Hermitage and the Russian Museum, for example, contain the richest collections of pictures in the world.

The city is called the Northern Venice, because there are 65 rivers, branches and canals there with artistically decorated bridges. It’s also famous for its beautiful white nights.

There are a lot of Hero-cities in our country. And I would recommend that my foreign friends visit one of them. Volgograd is a legendary city, because here in 1943 the Soviet Army won the great and glorious victory over the fascists. The city was completely ruined during the war, but now it is a beautiful city again. It stands on the banks of the great Russian river Volga. The symbol of Volgograd is the Mamaev Hill. It was the centre of fighting during the heroic defence of Stalingrad. Now there is a great memorial there. Besides, you can visit the Stalingrad Battle Panorama Museum, which is situated on the bank of the Volga River. The centre of Volgograd is the Square of the Fallen Heroes. In the middle of it there is a granite obelisk and the common graves of the heroes of the Civil War and the Great Patriotic War. At the foot of the memorial you can see the Eternal Flame. Now Volgograd is a big industrial and cultural centre.

There are a lot of other interesting towns and cities in Russia, which are all worth visiting.

Moscow

Moscow is the capital of Russia, its political, economic and cultural center. It was founded 8 centuries ago by Prince Yuri Dolgoruky. Historians have accepted the year of 1147 as the start of Moscow’s history. Gradually the city became more and more powerful. In the 13th century Moscow was the center of the struggle of Russian lands for the liberation from the tartar yoke. In the 16th century under Ivan the Terrible Moscow became the capital of the new united state. Though Peter the Great moved the capital to St. Petersburg in 1712, Moscow remained the heart of Russia.

Now Moscow is one of the largest cities in Europe. Its total area is about 900 square km. The population of the city is over 8 million people.

Moscow is one of the most beautiful cities in the world. The heart of Moscow is Red Square. The Kremlin and St. Basil’s Cathedral are masterpieces of ancient Russian architecture. The main Kremlin tower, the Spasskaya Tower, has become the symbol of the country. On the territory of Kremlin you can see old cathedrals, the Bell Tower, the Palace of Congress, the Tzar-Cannon and the Tzar-Bell, the biggest cannon and bell in the world. St. Basil’s Cathedral was built in the mid-16th century in memory of the victory over Kazan. There is a legend, that Ivan the Terrible blinded the architects Barma and Postnik, because he didn’t want them to create another masterpiece.

Moscow is famous for its theatres. The best known of them is the Bolshoi Opera House. Drama theatres and studios are also very popular.

Moscow is a city of students. There are over 80 higher educational institutions in it, including several universities.

Moscow is the seat of the Russian Parliament and the center of political life of the country.

British education

British education helps to develop fully the abilities of individuals, for their own benefit and of society as a whole. Compulsory schooling takes place between the ages of 5 and 16, but some pupils remain at shool for 2 years more, to prepare for further higher education. Post-school education is organized flexibly, to provide a wide range of opportunities for academic and vacational education and to continue studying through out life.

Administration of state schools is decentralised. The department of education and science is responsible for national education policy, but it doesn’t run any schools, it doesn’t employ teachers, or prescribe corricular or textbooks. All shools are given a considerable amount of freedom. According to the law only one subject is compulsory. That is religious instruction.

Children recieve preschool education under the age of 5 in nursery schools or in infant’s classes in primary schools.

Most pupils receive free education funded from public fonds and the small proportions attend wholly independent schools. Most independent schools are single-sex, but the number of mixed schools is growing.

Education within the maintained schools system usually comprises two stages: primary and secondary education. Primary schools are subdivided into infant schools (ages 5 — 7) and junior schools (ages 7 — 11). Infant schools are informal and children are encouraged to read, write and make use of numbers and develop the creative abilities. Primary children do all their work with the same class teacher exept for PT and music.

The junior stage lasts for four years. Children have set periods of arithmetic, reading, composition, history, geography, nature study and others. At this stage of schooling pupils were often placed in A, B, C and D streams according their abilities. The most able children were put in the A stream, the least able in the D stream. Till recently most junior school children had to take the eleven-plus examination. It usually consisted of an arithmetic paper and an intelligence test. According to the results of the exam children were sent to Grammar, Technical or Secondary modern schools. So called comprehensive schools began to appear after World War II. They are mixed schools which can provide education for over 1000 pupils. Ideally they provide all the courses given in Grammar, Technical and Secondary modern schools.

By the law all children must receive full-time education between the ages of 5 and 16. Formally each child can remain in school for further 2 or 3 years and continue his studies in the sixth form up to the age of 18 or 19. The course is usually subdivided into the lower 6 and the upper 6. The curriculum is narrowed to 5 subjects of which a pupil can choose 2 or 3.

The main examinations for secondary school pupils are general certificate of education (the GCE) exam and certificate of secondary education (the CSE) exam. The GSE exam is held at two levels: ordinary level (0 level) and advanced level (A level).

Candidates sit for 0-level papers at 15 — 16 years. GCE level is usually taken at the end on the sixth form. The CSE level exam is taken after 5 years of secondary education by the pupils who are of average abilities for their age.

Education in Russia

Citizens of Russia have the right for education which is guaranteed by the Constitution. The public educational system in our country incorporates pre-school, general school, specialized secondary and higher education.

Pre-school consists of kindergartens and creches. Children there learn reading, writing and arithmetic. But pre-school education isn’t compulsory — children can get it at home.

Compulsory education is for children from 6(7) to 17 years of age.

The main link in the system of education is the general school which prepares the younger generation for life and work in modern production. There are various types of schools: general secondary schools, schools specializing in a certain subject, high schools, lyceums and so on. Tuition in most of them is free of charge, but some new types of schools are fee-paying. The term of study in a general secondary school is 11 years and consists of primary, middle and upper stages. At the middle stage of a secondary school the children learn the basic laws of nature and society at the lessons of history, algebra, literature, physics and many others.

After the 9th form pupils have to sit for examinations. Also they have a choice between entering the 10th grade of a general secondary school and enrolling in a specialized secondary or vocational school.

Persons who finish the general secondary school, receive a secondary education certificate, giving them the right to enter any higher educational establishment. Entrance examinations are held in July and August. Institutions are headed by rectors; the faculties are headed by the deans. One has to study in the institute for 5 years. Higher educational institutions train students in one or several specializations.

English and Me

English belongs to the Teutonic or Germanic branch of the Indo-European family of the languages. It is only in the course of the last hundred years that English has become a world language. In Shakespeare’s time it was a provincial language of secondary importance with only 6 million native speakers. Nowadays English has become the world’s most important language in politics and science. In a number of speakers (400 million) it is second only to Chinese. It is the official language of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, of the United States of America, of Australia and New Zealand. English is used as one of the official languages in Canada, the Republic of South Africa and the Irish Republic. It is also spoken as a second language by many people in India and Pakistan. The number of people knowing English as second language may soon exceed the number of native speakers, if it has not done so already. The working languages of the United nations are English and French. All documents are written only in the working languages. Today English has become the language of international communication. At present no other language on Earth is better suited to play the role of the world language. People who speak English fall into one of three groups: those who have learnt it as their native language, those who have learnt it as a second language in a society which is mainly bilingual and those who are forced to use it for a practical purpose — professional or educational. Nowadays when science and technology are progressing so fast, all kinds of specialists need English in their work. I am not confident in my English. I think it doesn’t sound well. But I am a good learner. I always attend my English classes and work hard.

Education in the USA

The American system of school education differs from the systems in other countries. There are state public schools, private elementary schools and private secondary schools. Public schools are free and private schools are fee-paying. Each state has its own system of public schools. Elementary education begins at the age of six or seven, when a child goes to the first grade (form). At the age of sixteen schoolchildren leave the elementary school and may continue their education at one of the secondary schools or high schools, as they call them. The programme of studies in the elementary school includes English, Arithmetic, Geography, History of the USA, Natural Sciences and, besides, Physical Training, Singing, Drawing, Wood or Metal Work, etc. Sometimes they learn a foreign language and general history. Beside giving general education some high schools teach subjects useful to those who hope to find jobs in industry and agriculture or who want to enter colleges or universities. After graduating from secondary schools a growing number of Americans go on to higher education. The students do not take the same courses. During the first two years they follow a basic programme. It means that every student must select at least one course from each of the basic fields of study: English, Natural Sciences, Modern Languages, History or Physical Training. After the first two years every student can select subjects according to his professional interest. The National Government gives no direct financial aid to the institutions of higher education. Students must pay a tuition fee. This creates a financial hardship for some people. Many students have to work to pay their expenses. The Americans place a high value on education. That’s why Kennedy said, “Our progress as a nation can be no swifter than our progress in education.”

Learning foreigner language

More and more people realize that every educated person should know a foreigner language. The most popular language now is English. English is a world language. It’s the language of progressive science and technology, trade and cultural relation, commerce and business. It’s the universal language of international aviation, shipping and sports. It is also the major language of diplomacy. Hundreds and hundreds of books, magazines and newspapers are printed in English and real all over the world. 75% of the world’s mail and 60% of the world’s telephone calls are in English. Half of the world’s scientific literature is written in English too.

English is spoken by more than 350 million people . It is the official language of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland of the United States of America, of Australia and New Zealand. English is used as one of the official languages in Canada, the Republic of South Africa and the Irish Republic. It’s also spoken as second language speakers in many parts of Asia and Africa.

The number of second language speakers may soon exceed the number of native speakers. In Russia English is very popular: it is studied at schools, colleges, universities, and sometimes even at nurse schools. There are also other languages that are popular in the world. For example over 1000 million people use Chinese, the first language in the number of people who speak it, it means that out one of every five people in whole world speaks Chinese. Another popular language is Arabic, which is the official language of several Asia’s countries (Iran, Iraq, Syria, United Arab Emirates and others).

Learning a foreign language is not an easy thing. It is a long and slow process that takes a lot of time and patience. But to know languages today is absolutely necessary for everyone. I want to know foreign language because I have always been interested in foreign countries and their cultures. You know I think that who doesn’t know a foreign language, doesn’t know his own language.

Environmental Problems

The poisoning of the world’s land, air, and water is the fastest-spreading disease of civilisation. It probably produces fewer headlines than wars, earthquakes and floods, but it is potentially one of history’s greatest dangers to human life on earth. If present trends continue for the next several decades, our planet will become uninhabitable.

Overpopulation, pollution and energy consumption have created such planet-wide problems as massive deforestation, ozone depletion, acid rains and the global warming that is believed to be coused by the greenhouse effect.

The seas are in danger. They are filled with poison: industrial and nuclear waste, chemical fertilisers and pesticides. The Mediterranean is already nearly dead; the North Sea is following. The Aral Sea is on the brink of extinction. If nothing is done about it, one day nothing will be able to live in the seas.

Every ten minutes one kind of enimal, plant or insect dies out for ever. If nothing is done about it, one million species that are alive today will have become extinct twenty years from now.

Air pollution is a very serious problem. In Cairo just breathing the air is life threatening- equivalent to smoking two packs of cigarettes a day. The same holds true for Mexico City and 600 cities of the former Soviet Union.

Industrial enterprises emit tons of harmful substunces. These emissions have disastrous consequences for our planet. They are the main reason for the greenhouse effect and acid rains. An even greater environmental threat are nuclear power stations. We all know how tragic the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster are.

People are beginning to realise that environmental problems are not somebody else’s. They join and support various international organosation and green parties. If governments wake up to what is happening- perhaps we’ll be able to avoid the disaster that threatens the natural world and all of us with it.

Environmental protection

The planet Earth is only a tiny part of the universe, but it’s the only place where human beings can live. People always polluted their surroundings. But until now pollution was not such a serious problem. People lived in uncrowded rural areas and did not have pollution – caused by machines. With the development of crowded industrial cities, which created huge amounts of pollutants, the problem has become more important. Today our planet is in serious danger. Acid rains, global warming, air and water pollution, and overpopulation are the problems that threaten human life on Earth. Our forests are disappearing because they are cut down or burnt. If this trend continues, one day we won’t have enough oxygen to breathe.

The seas are in danger. They are filled with poison: industrial and nuclear wastes, chemical fertilizers and pesticides. The Mediterranean is already nearly dead; the North Sea is following its fate. The Aral Sea is about to disappear. If nothing is done about it, one day nothing will be able to live in the seas. Every ten minutes one kind of animal, plant or insect dies out forever. If nothing is done about it, one million species that are alive today may soon become extinct. Air pollution is another serious problem. In Cairo just breathing the air is dangerous – equivalent to smoking two packs of cigarettes a day. The same holds true for many Russian cites.

Factories emit tons of harmful chemicals. These emissions have disastrous consequences for our planet. They are the main reason for the greenhouse effect and acid rains.

And even greater threat are nuclear power stations. We all know how tragic the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster are.

Fortunately, it’s not too late to solve these problems. We have the time, the money and even the technology to make our planet a better, cleaner and safer place. We can plant trees and create parks for endangered species. We can recycle litter. Individuals and groups of people can work together to persuade enterprises to stop polluting activities.

American Holidays

There is a number of holidays in the USA which are celebrated every year. Here are some of them.

The 1st of January is New Year’s Day. People do not go to bed until after midnight on December 31. They like to see “the old year out and the new year in”. Many people give parties on New Year’s Eve.

Memorial Day, or Decoration Day, is dedicated to those who fought in the War of Independence, in World War I or in World War II.

The 4th of July is Independence Day. It is the biggest national holiday in the USA. The Declaration of Independence was proclaimed in Philadelphia on July 4, 1776, when the American colonies were fighting for independence against England.

On the 11th of November there is Veteran’s Day. It is I dedicated to those who fell in the two World Wars.

Thanksgiving Day is on the fourth Thursday in November. In the autumn of 1621, the Pilgrim Fathers celebrated their first harvest festival in America and called it Thanksgiving Day. Since that time it has been celebrated every year.

Christmas is celebrated on the 25th of December. People usually stay at home in Christmas time, and spend the day with their families.

English Traditions

If you arrive in Great Britain you’ll hear the word “tradition” everywhere. Englishmen have sentimental love for things and traditions. They never throw away old things.

In many houses in Great Britain they have fire-places and though their bedrooms are awfully cold, the English people do not want to have central heating because they do not want to have changes.

Therefore the Yeomen-Warders are dressed in traditional medieval clothes and the traditional dress of the Horse Guards regiment has existed since the twelfth century.

In the House of Lords of the British Parliament there are two rows of benches for lords and a sack of wool for the Lord Chancellor to sit on it. This is so because in the old times wool made England rich and powerful. In the House of Commons you will see two rows of benches for the two parties: the government on one side and the opposition — on the other. In front of the benches there is the strip on a carpet and when a member speaking in the House puts his foot beyond that strip, there is a shout “Order!”. This dates from the time when the members had swords on them and during the discussion might want to start fighting. The word “order” reminded them that no fighting was allowed in the House.

Another old custom remains from the time when there was a lot of robbers in London. In those days the shouting “Who goes home?” was often heard in the Houses of Parliament and the members went in groups along the dark narrow streets of the old city. In modem London with its well-lit streets the shouting “Who goes home?” is still heard.

Russian traditions

Almost every nation and country has a reputation of some kind. The Englishmen are reputed to be cold, reserved, easy-going and fond of sport. They are the nation of stay-at-homes. «There is no place like home», they say. The English man’s home is his castle is a saying known all over the world. They prefer a small house built for one family, with a small garden are a fire in the centre of the house. They like animals very much and follow the traditions concerning food and meals. We know much about English traditions and customs but now I’d like to say a few words about the traditions of my native land — Russia.

To my mind, the main traits of their characters which differ them from other people are hospitality, their «open heart», «golden hands», wise Russian fairytales reflect this wisdom. Our people are hardworking, patient, never loosing hope for better life. The Russians are the talented nation. Russia gave the world beautiful names of Pushkin and Lermontov, Chaikovsky and Repin, thousands of names of world famous poets, writers, composers, scientists. All of them are the pride of the nation because they sand the beauty of our nature and people.

Besides these great names in literature and music, our country is famous for Russian traditional specific crafts its skilled craftsmen. Painted boxes of Palekh, coloured shawls of Pavlov Posad, clay toys of Dymkovo, laces of Vologda are known all over the world. The names of Gzhel and Khokhloma are considered to be the symbols of Russia as well as matryoshkas and samovars. The history of khokhloma goes back into the 17th century Producing of tableware-dishes, spoons, mugs was begun at that time in the villages of Suomino and Khokhloma in the Nizhniy Novgorod Province. On the banks of the great Russian river Volga. Many carpenters, painters have been working since then reviving traditions of old masters. The Khokhloma style is characterized by using plant elements in painting the tableware. The prevailing colours are black, yellow, golden, green and red. And nowadays this craft is sure to be saved, it will be developed and brought into the future by the new generation of painters. The reviving of old crafts is connected with the reviving of the traditional arts of all peoples inhabiting our big country. There are 100 of them. They revive their culture, costumes, dances and language. It is the revival of our souls. Now we celebrate the forgotten holidays — Troisa, Maslenitsa, Easter. We again sing Russian folk songs and chastushki, dance Barinya and perform khorovods, ride in troikas.

Traditional Russian cooking is world-famous for such dishes as okroshka, shi, pelmeny, kurnik, kvas.

We begin to build and reconstruct churches as well. The example of it is the building of the Cathedral of Christ the Savior in Moscow. It is the symbol of reviving human feelings, national pride and patriotism.

Mass media

Mass media (that is, the press, the radio and television) play an important role in the life of society. They inform, educate and entertain people. They also influence the way people look at the world and make them change their views. Mass media mould public opinion. Millions of people in their spare time watch TV and read newspapers.

Everybody can find there something interesting for him. On the radio one can hear music, plays, news and various discussions or commentaries of current events. Multiple radio or TV games and films attract a large audience. Newspapers are used in different ways, but basically they are read.

There is a lot of advertisment on mass media. Some of the TV and radio stations and newspapers are owned by different corporations. The owners can advertise whatever they choose.

But it is hardly fair to say that mass media do not try to raise cultural level of the people or to develop their artistic taste. Mass media brings to millions of homes not only entertaiment and news but also cultural and educational programs.

There are more then six TV channels and lot’s of radio stations and newspapers now in the Russian Federation.

A question of taste. Fashion.

Fashion is something we deal with every day. Even people, who say they don’t care what they wear, choose clothes every morning that say a lot about them and how they feel that day. What influences our choice of clothes is an interesting question. I believe that most of the people do not follow the fashion displayed on the catwalk. That kind of clothes is a product of famous high-class designers’ work, it is often very extravagant and extremely expensive. It is also not designed to be worn every day, but it is suitable for some special occasions.

However, we definitely borrow some ideas about fashion from music clips, videos, books and television. Movies also have a big impact on what people wear. For example it is known that more sunglasses were sold in America after the movie «Men In Black.» Sometimes a trend becomes world-wide. Back in the 50’s teenagers everywhere dressed like Elvis Presley. Musicians and other cultural icons as well as political and royal figures have always influenced what we are wearing. Newspapers and magazines reported on what Hillary Clinton was wearing when she was the 1st lady. The death of Princess Diana was a severe blow to the high fashion world, where her clothes were daily news.

Depending on their attitude towards clothes and fashion, people can be divided in three groups: fashion slaves, spending all their money on the latest clothes even if they don’t look good in them; fashion fans, who enjoy wearing modern clothes but not obsessed by them and people who just don’t care how they look. Personally I place myself between fashion fans and people who don’t care how they look. Although I enjoy shopping very much and like to try things on, especially when I look good in them, I don’t spend much time choosing and buying clothes. And of course I do it only when I really need something new to wear, and not in order to kill time.

My style and the range of clothes that I have are defined by the activities I engage in. Work occupies most of my time and therefore most of the clothes that I have corresponds with the dress code, registered in the policy of our company. According to the dress code, an employee is not allowed to wear certain items of clothing to work. For example, men are supposed to wear ties and business suits, and nobody is allowed to wear jeans, except on Fridays. Women’s clothes are not supposed to be skin-tight, too short and too open. All of the shirts are supposed to have collars. Clothes also can’t be too bright, the colors should correspond to the corporate colors – dark blue and white.

Leisure Society

Britain has in recent years been described as a «leisure society». This is because there is a greater variety of leisure pursuits and people have more spare time and money to spend on relaxation. Most spare time after work or at the weekends is spent at home. Older people may go to the pub or to the theatre, or visit friends. In recent years going out for a meal or bringing a take-away meal home have become popular with all ages.

In Britain people watch TV for many hours every week. Many cities have twenty or more channels, sometimes going for twenty-four hours a day. Many well-off people have a «trailer» which they can use for weekends away. Some have holiday houses in the country and spend as much time as possible on outside activities like fishing.

Young people generally go out on Friday or Saturday nights to a disco, to a concert or to the pub. In London one or two new nightclubs open every week. Sunday is traditionally a day off and town center can be very quiet or even deserted. People read the Sunday newspapers, go for a walk in the park or countryside or work at home in the garden. A lot of people wash their cars on Sundays or do jobs around the house. Naturally the leisure industry persuades people to spend a lot of money, especially on new and more expensive interests such as computer games and sports equipment.

Generation Gap

One of the important problems of all times is a generation gap. Adult’s mentality is different from teenager’s. We are the children of two epochs with different views on various subjects. Because of this parents and children sometimes argue with each other.

Some people believe that teenagers today are generally rude, lazy and ill-behaved. Other people, however, think that teenagers are not so bad. Sometimes people don’t understand teenagers. They don’t understand some problems and things which are very important in teenagers’ life, for example the lifestyles, piercing, tattoos, relationship with friends and teachers.

Some people don’t want to understand modern views, ideals and our system of values. They say that teenagers are cruel, brutal, heartless and rude. Yes, today new generation «plays» with smoking, drugs and alcohol, but this doesn’t mean that all teens are really bad! On the other hand, today many elderly people look at the world with new eyes. Moreover, they try to understand teenagers’ problems and solve them.

Most of the quarrels between parents and children happen because of children’s marks at school and generation gap. We try to learn better, but if we have a bad mark our parents can shout at us.

In most cases «new generation» doesn’t understand their parents and becomes depressed because of this. To protest against it, teens can shock people around them. That’s why it is considered that teens today are lazy and ill-behaved. Elderly people usually compare their childhood and youth with present, they are always talking about «the good old days». People are said to become wiser with age. Sometimes it is true and sometimes it is not. I think that you can meet a wise man among the old as often as among the young. It is wrong that when wisdom always comes in old age. Sometimes when we talk to adults, they listen only to threir own point of view. That’s why some teens don’t like to talk to adults. To sum it up, nowadays everyone has a different view on teen’s life. But, in fact, we should simply learn to understand each other.

The problems of teenagers

Youth today has a lot of really difficult problems to solve. The first problem is education. Today, when the education is not free, the parents must pay money if they want their children to have higher education. Many teenagers have to work but it is difficult for them to find a job. Only skilled specialists are needed everywhere, so teenagers become unemployed. They want to earn their own money, that’s why some of them become robbers, thieves and murderers. Teenagers want to work as waiters, barmen, sellers and etc. As a rule most of the teenagers don’t read serious classical literature. The biggest problem for youth is alcohol, drugs, smoking. A person, taking drugs or driknimg alcohol, loses his will, he brings suffering to his members of the family. The next problem is sex. There are a lot of dangerous diseases. One of them is AIDS. There is no medicine to treat it. Do you know that every year three million people die of smoking? Do you know that your life is 25% shorter if you smoke? But in Russia more than 76% of poplation smokes. If you want to be healthy and strong you should give up your bad habits. As for me I have no problems with it.

Youth Problems

Today it is fashionable to speak about teenage broblems. A few years ago alcohol, fights, murders and other kinds of violence were more problems of adults rather than young people.

But now, as official reports admit, violence, AIDS, drugs and alcohol are more and more associated with youngest. For many children from poor families violence, drinking problems and all that is associated with powerty becomes more and more real.

The Government surveys show that every fifth teenager who was arrested for criminal actions, was younger that 14 and couldn’t be sent to prison. Almost half of teenagers have an experience with drugs, alcohol and sex under age of 16. A lot of teenagers who have drug or alcohol addiction almost never believe that they are dependent. These things are often combined with family and school problems.

What has gone wrong? Some specialists explain that the changes of our society, the system of our life force young people to choose their own lifestyle. On the one hand, our society agrees that 15-17-years old people are old enough to be responsible for what they do and gives them quite a lot of freedom and rights. On the other hand, most adults think that teenagers are too young to be taken seriously. This misunderstaning has produced many problems. Actually, a lot of teenagers say that their parents let them do anything they want and are quite indifferent to their problems. Many teenagers get upset or depressed when they can’t solve their problems. As a result, it makes them believe that there is only one way out — to stop living and commit suicide.

No doubt, the teens’ problems will increase. And young people should feeel that they are cared about.

Will We Live In Space?

People have dreamed of travelling in space for thousands of years. But it was not until 1957 that it became a reality.

On October 4, 1957 the USSR launched the first man-made satellite into space. It was called Sputnik 1.

On April 12, 1961 the soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin became the first man to orbit the Earth. The first spacewoman in the world was Valentina Tereshkova. She made 48 orbits in 1963 in her Vostok 6.

On July 20, 1969 the American astronaut Neil Armstrong became the first man to set foot on the Moon.

In 1986 the Russian space station Mir was launched.

Progress is inevitable and soon we’ll be able to visit and even live on other planets. The 21st century may turn science fiction into science fact. Scientists are already at work on the International Space Station, a «city of space». It will be the size of a football field and will weigh over 200 tons. A team of 10-15 spacemen will probably be able to live and work at the International Space Station in 2005.

The next step will be the first moonbase. 20 or 30 scientists will live inside a dome with an artificial atmosphere. This will make it possible for them to live and work without spacesuits. It also means that they will be able to grow food. If the moonbase is a success, the first lunar city will be built. It will have schools and universities, cinemas and discos, scientific laboratories and hospitals. Even babies will be bom on the moon!

The next great step will be when people land on our nearest planet Mars. Scientists say that the planet once had water on its surface. If that water is now frozen underground, humans will be able to use it someday. By the end of the 21-st century, scientists hope, it will be possible to «terraform» Mars — transform the planet into an earthlike place with air and water. Space awaits the 21st century’s pioneers.

Life In The 21-st Century

We’ve entered a new era: the twenty-first century. Of course, it’s exciting and we are trying to predict what our life will be like in the future. It will certainly become better — I’m sure of it.

Robots will do all the dangerous and dirty work for us and our daily life will become easier. They’ll sweep the floor, dust the furniture, wash the dishes and even cook! It doesn’t mean we’ll become lazier, no. When everything is automated, we’ll be able to do more creative jobs.

We’ll be able to call our friends on a videophone and type up homework by talking to a small gadget that understands the human voice.

Scientists (or probably computers?) will find solutions to our most urgent problems. People will stop dying from cancer and AIDS and will live to be 150 years old.

There will be no more famine on our planet and no more hungry children. Cities will become cleaner, greener and safer. We’ll drive electric cars and live in houses with lots of plants and special air-cleaning gadgets.

Atmospheric pollution will be stopped and our planet will be saved.

There will be no more wars, no more criminals and no more terrorists.

People will learn to live in peace and understand each other.

We’ll have more free time and longer holidays. We’ll be able to travel in space and — who knows? — one day we’ll be able to spend our holidays on Mars.

I’m really optimistic about the future. After all, we are becoming wiser. The superpowers are disarming, governments are waking up to Green issues …

Anyway, it’s up to us to look after our planet and try to make it a better place to live.

Great Inventions

Television (1920s)

The invention that swept the world and changed leisure habits for countless millions was pioneered by Scottish-born electrical engineer John Logie Baird. It had been realised for some time that light could be converted into electrical impulses, making it possible to transmit such impulses over a distance and then reconvert them into light.

Motor Car (late 19th Century)

With television, the car is probably the most widely used and most useful of all leisure-inspired inventions. German engineer Karl Benz produced the first petroldriven car in 1885 and the British motor industry started in 1896. Henry Ford was the first to use assembly line production for his Model Т car in 1908. Like them or hate them, cars have given people great freedom of travel.

Electricity

The name came from the Greek word for amber and was coined by Elizabeth I’s physician William Gilbert who was among those who noticed that amber had the power to attract light objects after being rubbed. In the 19th century such great names as Michael Faraday, Humphry Davy, Alessandro Volta and Andre Marie Ampere all did vital work on electricity.

Photography (early 19th Century)

Leonardo da Vinci had described the camera obscura photographic principle as early as 1515. But it was not until 1835 that Frenchman Louis Daguerre produced camera photography. The system was gradually refined over the years, to the joy of happy snappers and the despair of those who had to wade through friends’ endless holiday pictures.

Telephone (1876)

Edinburgh-born scientist Alexander Graham Bell patented his invention of the telephone in 1876. The following year, the great American inventor Thomas Edison produced the first working telephone. With telephones soon becoming rapidly available, the days of letter-writing became numbered.

Computer (20th Century)

The computer has been another life-transforming invention. British mathematician Charles Babbage designed a form of computer in the mid-1830s, but it was not until more than a century later that theory was put into practice. Now, a whole generation has grown up with calculators, windows, icons, computer games and word processors, and the Internet and e-mail have transformed communication and information.

Aeroplane

The plane was the invention that helped shrink the world and brought distant lands within easy reach of ordinary people. The invention of the petrol engine made flight feasible and the American Wright brothers made the first flight in 1903.

Extreme sports

Speed, excitement, danger. You can find all these in the different extreme sports that have become popular in last 10 years. Take bungee jumping. You jump off a bridge and you fall and fall, and then, just before you hit the ground or water, an elastic rope pulls you back. In skysurfing you jump out of aeroplane and use a board to «surf» the air, doing gymnastics in mid-air!

Winter sports have always an element of danger. For example snowboarding, which has all the excitement of surfing but on snow, is more dangerous even than skiing.

Probably the most dangerous of all the new winter sports is snowrafting. You sit in a rubber boat and sail down a mountain at great speed – and you can’t control the boat!

Of course, water sports have always been fun. Ice diving, for those people who are absolutely crazy. You put on diving equipment and dive under a frozen lake. And, if that’s not enough, you try to walk upside down on the ice! I feel cold just thinking about it.

A lot of people are not fit nowadays. It’s a big problem today. If you want to feel fit you’d better go in for one kind of sport or another. I think that everyone must do all he can to be healthy. Good health is better than the best medicine. All kinds of physical exercises are very useful to make our bodies strong and to keep ourselves fit and healthy.

To tell the truth I don’t do sports regularly and it is not an essential part of my daily life. In the morning I do some exercises just to awake. In summer I go swimming as there is a beautiful lake with pure water where my Granny lives. In winter I swim in the swimming pool.

I shouldn’t call myself a sports fan. Of course, I like to watch sports competitions on TV, like hockey or football. Also I admire skiing championships, biathlon, swimming.

Sport in the USA

Americans’ interest in sports seems excessive to many foreign visitors. Television networks spend millions of dollars arranging to telecast sports events. Publications about sports sell widely. In the US professional athletes can become national heroes.

Sports are associated with educational institutions in a way is unique. High schools have coaches as faculty members, and school teams compete with each other. Nowhere else in the world are sports associated with colleges and universities in the way they are in the States. College sports, especially football, are conducted in an atmosphere of intense excitement and pageantry. Games between teams attract nationwide television audiences. The sport that is most popular in most parts of the world — soccer — is not well known in the US. The most popular sports are American football and baseball, games that are not played in large number of countries. Sports play such an important role in American life that the sociology of sports, sports medicine, and sports psychology have become respectable specializations. Many Americans jog every day, or play tennis or bridge two or three times a week. They go on ski tri/ps and hunting expeditions that require weeks of planning and organizing. In the Americans’ view, all these activities are worth the discomfort they may cause because they contribute to health and physical fitness. That is probably why Americans are known as a healthy nation.

Sports in Great Britain

The English are great lovers of sport; and they are neither playing nor waching games, they like to talk about them. However, there is important thing about sport in Britain which we must know. Today, the big-time sport is professional and famous players can make much money.



Страницы: 1 | 2 | Весь текст